Skip to Content
OpenStax Logo
University Physics Volume 2

Additional Problems

University Physics Volume 2Additional Problems
Buy book
  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Thermodynamics
    1. 1 Temperature and Heat
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium
      3. 1.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales
      4. 1.3 Thermal Expansion
      5. 1.4 Heat Transfer, Specific Heat, and Calorimetry
      6. 1.5 Phase Changes
      7. 1.6 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 The Kinetic Theory of Gases
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Molecular Model of an Ideal Gas
      3. 2.2 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed
      4. 2.3 Heat Capacity and Equipartition of Energy
      5. 2.4 Distribution of Molecular Speeds
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 3 The First Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Thermodynamic Systems
      3. 3.2 Work, Heat, and Internal Energy
      4. 3.3 First Law of Thermodynamics
      5. 3.4 Thermodynamic Processes
      6. 3.5 Heat Capacities of an Ideal Gas
      7. 3.6 Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Reversible and Irreversible Processes
      3. 4.2 Heat Engines
      4. 4.3 Refrigerators and Heat Pumps
      5. 4.4 Statements of the Second Law of Thermodynamics
      6. 4.5 The Carnot Cycle
      7. 4.6 Entropy
      8. 4.7 Entropy on a Microscopic Scale
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Electricity and Magnetism
    1. 5 Electric Charges and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Electric Charge
      3. 5.2 Conductors, Insulators, and Charging by Induction
      4. 5.3 Coulomb's Law
      5. 5.4 Electric Field
      6. 5.5 Calculating Electric Fields of Charge Distributions
      7. 5.6 Electric Field Lines
      8. 5.7 Electric Dipoles
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    2. 6 Gauss's Law
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Electric Flux
      3. 6.2 Explaining Gauss’s Law
      4. 6.3 Applying Gauss’s Law
      5. 6.4 Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibrium
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 7 Electric Potential
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Electric Potential Energy
      3. 7.2 Electric Potential and Potential Difference
      4. 7.3 Calculations of Electric Potential
      5. 7.4 Determining Field from Potential
      6. 7.5 Equipotential Surfaces and Conductors
      7. 7.6 Applications of Electrostatics
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 8 Capacitance
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Capacitors and Capacitance
      3. 8.2 Capacitors in Series and in Parallel
      4. 8.3 Energy Stored in a Capacitor
      5. 8.4 Capacitor with a Dielectric
      6. 8.5 Molecular Model of a Dielectric
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    5. 9 Current and Resistance
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Electrical Current
      3. 9.2 Model of Conduction in Metals
      4. 9.3 Resistivity and Resistance
      5. 9.4 Ohm's Law
      6. 9.5 Electrical Energy and Power
      7. 9.6 Superconductors
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 10 Direct-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Electromotive Force
      3. 10.2 Resistors in Series and Parallel
      4. 10.3 Kirchhoff's Rules
      5. 10.4 Electrical Measuring Instruments
      6. 10.5 RC Circuits
      7. 10.6 Household Wiring and Electrical Safety
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 11 Magnetic Forces and Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Magnetism and Its Historical Discoveries
      3. 11.2 Magnetic Fields and Lines
      4. 11.3 Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field
      5. 11.4 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor
      6. 11.5 Force and Torque on a Current Loop
      7. 11.6 The Hall Effect
      8. 11.7 Applications of Magnetic Forces and Fields
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    8. 12 Sources of Magnetic Fields
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 The Biot-Savart Law
      3. 12.2 Magnetic Field Due to a Thin Straight Wire
      4. 12.3 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Currents
      5. 12.4 Magnetic Field of a Current Loop
      6. 12.5 Ampère’s Law
      7. 12.6 Solenoids and Toroids
      8. 12.7 Magnetism in Matter
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    9. 13 Electromagnetic Induction
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Faraday’s Law
      3. 13.2 Lenz's Law
      4. 13.3 Motional Emf
      5. 13.4 Induced Electric Fields
      6. 13.5 Eddy Currents
      7. 13.6 Electric Generators and Back Emf
      8. 13.7 Applications of Electromagnetic Induction
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    10. 14 Inductance
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Mutual Inductance
      3. 14.2 Self-Inductance and Inductors
      4. 14.3 Energy in a Magnetic Field
      5. 14.4 RL Circuits
      6. 14.5 Oscillations in an LC Circuit
      7. 14.6 RLC Series Circuits
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    11. 15 Alternating-Current Circuits
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 AC Sources
      3. 15.2 Simple AC Circuits
      4. 15.3 RLC Series Circuits with AC
      5. 15.4 Power in an AC Circuit
      6. 15.5 Resonance in an AC Circuit
      7. 15.6 Transformers
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    12. 16 Electromagnetic Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Maxwell’s Equations and Electromagnetic Waves
      3. 16.2 Plane Electromagnetic Waves
      4. 16.3 Energy Carried by Electromagnetic Waves
      5. 16.4 Momentum and Radiation Pressure
      6. 16.5 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
  12. Index

Additional Problems

76.

In the deep space between galaxies, the density of molecules (which are mostly single atoms) can be as low as 106atoms/m3,106atoms/m3, and the temperature is a frigid 2.7 K. What is the pressure? (b) What volume (in m3m3) is occupied by 1 mol of gas? (c) If this volume is a cube, what is the length of its sides in kilometers?

77.

(a) Find the density in SI units of air at a pressure of 1.00 atm and a temperature of 20°C20°C, assuming that air is 78%N2,21%O2,and1%Ar78%N2,21%O2,and1%Ar, (b) Find the density of the atmosphere on Venus, assuming that it’s 96%CO2and4%N296%CO2and4%N2, with a temperature of 737 K and a pressure of 92.0 atm.

78.

The air inside a hot-air balloon has a temperature of 370 K and a pressure of 101.3 kPa, the same as that of the air outside. Using the composition of air as 78%N2,21%O2,and1%Ar78%N2,21%O2,and1%Ar, find the density of the air inside the balloon.

79.

When an air bubble rises from the bottom to the top of a freshwater lake, its volume increases by 80%80%. If the temperatures at the bottom and the top of the lake are 4.0 and 10 °C°C, respectively, how deep is the lake?

80.

(a) Use the ideal gas equation to estimate the temperature at which 1.00 kg of steam (molar mass M=18.0g/molM=18.0g/mol) at a pressure of 1.50×106Pa1.50×106Pa occupies a volume of 0.220m30.220m3. (b) The van der Waals constants for water are a=0.5537Pa·m6/mol2a=0.5537Pa·m6/mol2 and b=3.049×10−5m3/molb=3.049×10−5m3/mol. Use the Van der Waals equation of state to estimate the temperature under the same conditions. (c) The actual temperature is 779 K. Which estimate is better?

81.

One process for decaffeinating coffee uses carbon dioxide (M=44.0g/mol)(M=44.0g/mol) at a molar density of about 14,600mol/m314,600mol/m3 and a temperature of about 60°C60°C. (a) Is CO2 a solid, liquid, gas, or supercritical fluid under those conditions? (b) The van der Waals constants for carbon dioxide are a=0.3658Pa·m6/mol2a=0.3658Pa·m6/mol2 and b=4.286×10−5m3/mol.b=4.286×10−5m3/mol. Using the van der Waals equation, estimate the pressure of CO2CO2 at that temperature and density.

82.

On a winter day when the air temperature is 0°C,0°C, the relative humidity is 50%50%. Outside air comes inside and is heated to a room temperature of 20°C20°C. What is the relative humidity of the air inside the room. (Does this problem show why inside air is so dry in winter?)

83.

On a warm day when the air temperature is 30°C30°C, a metal can is slowly cooled by adding bits of ice to liquid water in it. Condensation first appears when the can reaches 15°C15°C. What is the relative humidity of the air?

84.

(a) People often think of humid air as “heavy.” Compare the densities of air with 0%0% relative humidity and 100%100% relative humidity when both are at 1 atm and 30°C30°C. Assume that the dry air is an ideal gas composed of molecules with a molar mass of 29.0 g/mol and the moist air is the same gas mixed with water vapor. (b) As discussed in the chapter on the applications of Newton’s laws, the air resistance felt by projectiles such as baseballs and golf balls is approximately FD=CρAv2/2FD=CρAv2/2, where ρρ is the mass density of the air, A is the cross-sectional area of the projectile, and C is the projectile’s drag coefficient. For a fixed air pressure, describe qualitatively how the range of a projectile changes with the relative humidity. (c) When a thunderstorm is coming, usually the humidity is high and the air pressure is low. Do those conditions give an advantage or disadvantage to home-run hitters?

85.

The mean free path for helium at a certain temperature and pressure is 2.10×10−7m.2.10×10−7m. The radius of a helium atom can be taken as 1.10×10−11m1.10×10−11m. What is the measure of the density of helium under those conditions (a) in molecules per cubic meter and (b) in moles per cubic meter?

86.

The mean free path for methane at a temperature of 269 K and a pressure of 1.11×105Pa1.11×105Pa is 4.81×10−8m.4.81×10−8m. Find the effective radius r of the methane molecule.

87.

In the chapter on fluid mechanics, Bernoulli’s equation for the flow of incompressible fluids was explained in terms of changes affecting a small volume dV of fluid. Such volumes are a fundamental idea in the study of the flow of compressible fluids such as gases as well. For the equations of hydrodynamics to apply, the mean free path must be much less than the linear size of such a volume, adV1/3.adV1/3. For air in the stratosphere at a temperature of 220 K and a pressure of 5.8 kPa, how big should a be for it to be 100 times the mean free path? Take the effective radius of air molecules to be 1.88×10−11m,1.88×10−11m, which is roughly correct for N2N2.

88.

Find the total number of collisions between molecules in 1.00 s in 1.00 L of nitrogen gas at standard temperature and pressure (0°C0°C, 1.00 atm). Use 1.88×10−10m1.88×10−10m as the effective radius of a nitrogen molecule. (The number of collisions per second is the reciprocal of the collision time.) Keep in mind that each collision involves two molecules, so if one molecule collides once in a certain period of time, the collision of the molecule it hit cannot be counted.

89.

(a) Estimate the specific heat capacity of sodium from the Law of Dulong and Petit. The molar mass of sodium is 23.0 g/mol. (b) What is the percent error of your estimate from the known value, 1230J/kg·°C1230J/kg·°C?

90.

A sealed, perfectly insulated container contains 0.630 mol of air at 20.0°C20.0°C and an iron stirring bar of mass 40.0 g. The stirring bar is magnetically driven to a kinetic energy of 50.0 J and allowed to slow down by air resistance. What is the equilibrium temperature?

91.

Find the ratio f(vp)/f(vrms)f(vp)/f(vrms) for hydrogen gas (M=2.02g/mol)(M=2.02g/mol) at a temperature of 77.0 K.

92.

Unreasonable results. (a) Find the temperature of 0.360 kg of water, modeled as an ideal gas, at a pressure of 1.01×105Pa1.01×105Pa if it has a volume of 0.615m30.615m3. (b) What is unreasonable about this answer? How could you get a better answer?

93.

Unreasonable results. (a) Find the average speed of hydrogen sulfide, H2SH2S, molecules at a temperature of 250 K. Its molar mass is 31.4 g/mol (b) The result isn’t very unreasonable, but why is it less reliable than those for, say, neon or nitrogen?

Citation/Attribution

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book is Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/university-physics-volume-2/pages/1-introduction
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/university-physics-volume-2/pages/1-introduction
Citation information

© Oct 6, 2016 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license. The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.