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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Mechanics
    1. 1 Units and Measurement
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Scope and Scale of Physics
      3. 1.2 Units and Standards
      4. 1.3 Unit Conversion
      5. 1.4 Dimensional Analysis
      6. 1.5 Estimates and Fermi Calculations
      7. 1.6 Significant Figures
      8. 1.7 Solving Problems in Physics
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 Vectors
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Scalars and Vectors
      3. 2.2 Coordinate Systems and Components of a Vector
      4. 2.3 Algebra of Vectors
      5. 2.4 Products of Vectors
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 3 Motion Along a Straight Line
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Position, Displacement, and Average Velocity
      3. 3.2 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
      4. 3.3 Average and Instantaneous Acceleration
      5. 3.4 Motion with Constant Acceleration
      6. 3.5 Free Fall
      7. 3.6 Finding Velocity and Displacement from Acceleration
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 Motion in Two and Three Dimensions
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Displacement and Velocity Vectors
      3. 4.2 Acceleration Vector
      4. 4.3 Projectile Motion
      5. 4.4 Uniform Circular Motion
      6. 4.5 Relative Motion in One and Two Dimensions
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    5. 5 Newton's Laws of Motion
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Forces
      3. 5.2 Newton's First Law
      4. 5.3 Newton's Second Law
      5. 5.4 Mass and Weight
      6. 5.5 Newton’s Third Law
      7. 5.6 Common Forces
      8. 5.7 Drawing Free-Body Diagrams
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 6 Applications of Newton's Laws
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Solving Problems with Newton’s Laws
      3. 6.2 Friction
      4. 6.3 Centripetal Force
      5. 6.4 Drag Force and Terminal Speed
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 7 Work and Kinetic Energy
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Work
      3. 7.2 Kinetic Energy
      4. 7.3 Work-Energy Theorem
      5. 7.4 Power
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    8. 8 Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Potential Energy of a System
      3. 8.2 Conservative and Non-Conservative Forces
      4. 8.3 Conservation of Energy
      5. 8.4 Potential Energy Diagrams and Stability
      6. 8.5 Sources of Energy
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    9. 9 Linear Momentum and Collisions
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Linear Momentum
      3. 9.2 Impulse and Collisions
      4. 9.3 Conservation of Linear Momentum
      5. 9.4 Types of Collisions
      6. 9.5 Collisions in Multiple Dimensions
      7. 9.6 Center of Mass
      8. 9.7 Rocket Propulsion
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    10. 10 Fixed-Axis Rotation
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Rotational Variables
      3. 10.2 Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration
      4. 10.3 Relating Angular and Translational Quantities
      5. 10.4 Moment of Inertia and Rotational Kinetic Energy
      6. 10.5 Calculating Moments of Inertia
      7. 10.6 Torque
      8. 10.7 Newton’s Second Law for Rotation
      9. 10.8 Work and Power for Rotational Motion
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    11. 11 Angular Momentum
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Rolling Motion
      3. 11.2 Angular Momentum
      4. 11.3 Conservation of Angular Momentum
      5. 11.4 Precession of a Gyroscope
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    12. 12 Static Equilibrium and Elasticity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Conditions for Static Equilibrium
      3. 12.2 Examples of Static Equilibrium
      4. 12.3 Stress, Strain, and Elastic Modulus
      5. 12.4 Elasticity and Plasticity
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    13. 13 Gravitation
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
      3. 13.2 Gravitation Near Earth's Surface
      4. 13.3 Gravitational Potential Energy and Total Energy
      5. 13.4 Satellite Orbits and Energy
      6. 13.5 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
      7. 13.6 Tidal Forces
      8. 13.7 Einstein's Theory of Gravity
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    14. 14 Fluid Mechanics
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Fluids, Density, and Pressure
      3. 14.2 Measuring Pressure
      4. 14.3 Pascal's Principle and Hydraulics
      5. 14.4 Archimedes’ Principle and Buoyancy
      6. 14.5 Fluid Dynamics
      7. 14.6 Bernoulli’s Equation
      8. 14.7 Viscosity and Turbulence
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Waves and Acoustics
    1. 15 Oscillations
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 Simple Harmonic Motion
      3. 15.2 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
      4. 15.3 Comparing Simple Harmonic Motion and Circular Motion
      5. 15.4 Pendulums
      6. 15.5 Damped Oscillations
      7. 15.6 Forced Oscillations
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 16 Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Traveling Waves
      3. 16.2 Mathematics of Waves
      4. 16.3 Wave Speed on a Stretched String
      5. 16.4 Energy and Power of a Wave
      6. 16.5 Interference of Waves
      7. 16.6 Standing Waves and Resonance
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 17 Sound
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Sound Waves
      3. 17.2 Speed of Sound
      4. 17.3 Sound Intensity
      5. 17.4 Normal Modes of a Standing Sound Wave
      6. 17.5 Sources of Musical Sound
      7. 17.6 Beats
      8. 17.7 The Doppler Effect
      9. 17.8 Shock Waves
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
  12. Index

Check Your Understanding

1.1

4.79×1024.79×102 Mg or 479 Mg

1.2

3×108m/s3×108m/s

1.3

108km2108km2

1.4

The numbers were too small, by a factor of 4.45.

1.5

4πr3/34πr3/3

1.6

yes

1.7

3×104m3×104m or 30 km. It is probably an underestimate because the density of the atmosphere decreases with altitude. (In fact, 30 km does not even get us out of the stratosphere.)

1.8

No, the coach’s new stopwatch will not be helpful. The uncertainty in the stopwatch is too great to differentiate between the sprint times effectively.

Conceptual Questions

1.

Physics is the science concerned with describing the interactions of energy, matter, space, and time to uncover the fundamental mechanisms that underlie every phenomenon.

3.

No, neither of these two theories is more valid than the other. Experimentation is the ultimate decider. If experimental evidence does not suggest one theory over the other, then both are equally valid. A given physicist might prefer one theory over another on the grounds that one seems more simple, more natural, or more beautiful than the other, but that physicist would quickly acknowledge that he or she cannot say the other theory is invalid. Rather, he or she would be honest about the fact that more experimental evidence is needed to determine which theory is a better description of nature.

5.

Probably not. As the saying goes, “Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence.”

7.

Conversions between units require factors of 10 only, which simplifies calculations. Also, the same basic units can be scaled up or down using metric prefixes to sizes appropriate for the problem at hand.

9.

a. Base units are defined by a particular process of measuring a base quantity whereas derived units are defined as algebraic combinations of base units. b. A base quantity is chosen by convention and practical considerations. Derived quantities are expressed as algebraic combinations of base quantities. c. A base unit is a standard for expressing the measurement of a base quantity within a particular system of units. So, a measurement of a base quantity could be expressed in terms of a base unit in any system of units using the same base quantities. For example, length is a base quantity in both SI and the English system, but the meter is a base unit in the SI system only.

11.

a. Uncertainty is a quantitative measure of precision. b. Discrepancy is a quantitative measure of accuracy.

13.

Check to make sure it makes sense and assess its significance.

Problems

15.

a. 103; b. 105; c. 102; d. 1015; e. 102; f. 1057

17.

102 generations

19.

1011 atoms

21.

103 nerve impulses/s

23.

1026 floating-point operations per human lifetime

25.

a. 957 ks; b. 4.5 cs or 45 ms; c. 550 ns; d. 31.6 Ms

27.

a. 75.9 Mm; b. 7.4 mm; c. 88 pm; d. 16.3 Tm

29.

a. 3.8 cg or 38 mg; b. 230 Eg; c. 24 ng; d. 8 Eg e. 4.2 g

31.

a. 27.8 m/s; b. 62 mi/h

33.

a. 3.6 km/h; b. 2.2 mi/h

35.

1.05×105ft21.05×105ft2

37.

8.847 km

39.

a. 1.3×10−9m;1.3×10−9m; b. 40 km/My

41.

106Mg/μL106Mg/μL

43.

62.4 lbm/ft3

45.

0.017 rad

47.

1 light-nanosecond

49.

3.6×10−4m33.6×10−4m3

51.

a. Yes, both terms have dimension L2T-2 b. No. c. Yes, both terms have dimension LT-1 d. Yes, both terms have dimension LT-2

53.

a. [v] = LT–1; b. [a] = LT–2; c. [vdt]=L;[vdt]=L; d. [adt]=LT–1;[adt]=LT–1; e. [dadt]=LT–3[dadt]=LT–3

55.

a. L; b. L; c. L0 = 1 (that is, it is dimensionless)

57.

1028 atoms

59.

1051 molecules

61.

1016 solar systems

63.

a. Volume = 1027 m3, diameter is 109 m.; b. 1011 m

65.

a. A reasonable estimate might be one operation per second for a total of 109 in a lifetime.; b. about (109)(10–17 s) = 10–8 s, or about 10 ns

67.

2 kg

69.

4%

71.

67 mL

73.

a. The number 99 has 2 significant figures; 100. has 3 significant figures. b. 1.00%; c. percent uncertainties

75.

a. 2%; b. 1 mm Hg

77.

7.557 cm2

79.

a. 37.2 lb; because the number of bags is an exact value, it is not considered in the significant figures; b. 1.4 N; because the value 55 kg has only two significant figures, the final value must also contain two significant figures

Additional Problems

81.

a. [s0]=L[s0]=L and units are meters (m); b. [v0]=LT−1[v0]=LT−1 and units are meters per second (m/s); c. [a0]=LT−2[a0]=LT−2 and units are meters per second squared (m/s2); d. [j0]=LT−3[j0]=LT−3 and units are meters per second cubed (m/s3); e. [S0]=LT−4[S0]=LT−4 and units are m/s4; f. [c]=LT−5[c]=LT−5 and units are m/s5.

83.

a. 0.059%; b. 0.01%; c. 4.681 m/s; d. 0.07%, 0.003 m/s

85.

a. 0.02%; b. 1×104 lbm

87.

a. 143.6 cm3; b. 0.1 cm3 or 0.084%

Challenge Problems

89.

Since each term in the power series involves the argument raised to a different power, the only way that every term in the power series can have the same dimension is if the argument is dimensionless. To see this explicitly, suppose [x] = LaMbTc. Then, [xn] = [x]n = LanMbnTcn. If we want [x] = [xn], then an = a, bn = b, and cn = c for all n. The only way this can happen is if a = b = c = 0.

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