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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Mechanics
    1. 1 Units and Measurement
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Scope and Scale of Physics
      3. 1.2 Units and Standards
      4. 1.3 Unit Conversion
      5. 1.4 Dimensional Analysis
      6. 1.5 Estimates and Fermi Calculations
      7. 1.6 Significant Figures
      8. 1.7 Solving Problems in Physics
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 Vectors
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Scalars and Vectors
      3. 2.2 Coordinate Systems and Components of a Vector
      4. 2.3 Algebra of Vectors
      5. 2.4 Products of Vectors
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 3 Motion Along a Straight Line
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Position, Displacement, and Average Velocity
      3. 3.2 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
      4. 3.3 Average and Instantaneous Acceleration
      5. 3.4 Motion with Constant Acceleration
      6. 3.5 Free Fall
      7. 3.6 Finding Velocity and Displacement from Acceleration
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 Motion in Two and Three Dimensions
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Displacement and Velocity Vectors
      3. 4.2 Acceleration Vector
      4. 4.3 Projectile Motion
      5. 4.4 Uniform Circular Motion
      6. 4.5 Relative Motion in One and Two Dimensions
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    5. 5 Newton's Laws of Motion
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Forces
      3. 5.2 Newton's First Law
      4. 5.3 Newton's Second Law
      5. 5.4 Mass and Weight
      6. 5.5 Newton’s Third Law
      7. 5.6 Common Forces
      8. 5.7 Drawing Free-Body Diagrams
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 6 Applications of Newton's Laws
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Solving Problems with Newton’s Laws
      3. 6.2 Friction
      4. 6.3 Centripetal Force
      5. 6.4 Drag Force and Terminal Speed
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 7 Work and Kinetic Energy
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Work
      3. 7.2 Kinetic Energy
      4. 7.3 Work-Energy Theorem
      5. 7.4 Power
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    8. 8 Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Potential Energy of a System
      3. 8.2 Conservative and Non-Conservative Forces
      4. 8.3 Conservation of Energy
      5. 8.4 Potential Energy Diagrams and Stability
      6. 8.5 Sources of Energy
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    9. 9 Linear Momentum and Collisions
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Linear Momentum
      3. 9.2 Impulse and Collisions
      4. 9.3 Conservation of Linear Momentum
      5. 9.4 Types of Collisions
      6. 9.5 Collisions in Multiple Dimensions
      7. 9.6 Center of Mass
      8. 9.7 Rocket Propulsion
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    10. 10 Fixed-Axis Rotation
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Rotational Variables
      3. 10.2 Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration
      4. 10.3 Relating Angular and Translational Quantities
      5. 10.4 Moment of Inertia and Rotational Kinetic Energy
      6. 10.5 Calculating Moments of Inertia
      7. 10.6 Torque
      8. 10.7 Newton’s Second Law for Rotation
      9. 10.8 Work and Power for Rotational Motion
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    11. 11 Angular Momentum
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Rolling Motion
      3. 11.2 Angular Momentum
      4. 11.3 Conservation of Angular Momentum
      5. 11.4 Precession of a Gyroscope
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    12. 12 Static Equilibrium and Elasticity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Conditions for Static Equilibrium
      3. 12.2 Examples of Static Equilibrium
      4. 12.3 Stress, Strain, and Elastic Modulus
      5. 12.4 Elasticity and Plasticity
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    13. 13 Gravitation
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
      3. 13.2 Gravitation Near Earth's Surface
      4. 13.3 Gravitational Potential Energy and Total Energy
      5. 13.4 Satellite Orbits and Energy
      6. 13.5 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
      7. 13.6 Tidal Forces
      8. 13.7 Einstein's Theory of Gravity
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    14. 14 Fluid Mechanics
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Fluids, Density, and Pressure
      3. 14.2 Measuring Pressure
      4. 14.3 Pascal's Principle and Hydraulics
      5. 14.4 Archimedes’ Principle and Buoyancy
      6. 14.5 Fluid Dynamics
      7. 14.6 Bernoulli’s Equation
      8. 14.7 Viscosity and Turbulence
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Waves and Acoustics
    1. 15 Oscillations
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 Simple Harmonic Motion
      3. 15.2 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
      4. 15.3 Comparing Simple Harmonic Motion and Circular Motion
      5. 15.4 Pendulums
      6. 15.5 Damped Oscillations
      7. 15.6 Forced Oscillations
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 16 Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Traveling Waves
      3. 16.2 Mathematics of Waves
      4. 16.3 Wave Speed on a Stretched String
      5. 16.4 Energy and Power of a Wave
      6. 16.5 Interference of Waves
      7. 16.6 Standing Waves and Resonance
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 17 Sound
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Sound Waves
      3. 17.2 Speed of Sound
      4. 17.3 Sound Intensity
      5. 17.4 Normal Modes of a Standing Sound Wave
      6. 17.5 Sources of Musical Sound
      7. 17.6 Beats
      8. 17.7 The Doppler Effect
      9. 17.8 Shock Waves
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
  12. Index

Learning Objectives

By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Relate the work done during a time interval to the power delivered
  • Find the power expended by a force acting on a moving body

The concept of work involves force and displacement; the work-energy theorem relates the net work done on a body to the difference in its kinetic energy, calculated between two points on its trajectory. None of these quantities or relations involves time explicitly, yet we know that the time available to accomplish a particular amount of work is frequently just as important to us as the amount itself. In the chapter-opening figure, several sprinters may have achieved the same velocity at the finish, and therefore did the same amount of work, but the winner of the race did it in the least amount of time.

We express the relation between work done and the time interval involved in doing it, by introducing the concept of power. Since work can vary as a function of time, we first define average power as the work done during a time interval, divided by the interval,

Pave=ΔWΔt.Pave=ΔWΔt.
(7.10)

Then, we can define the instantaneous power (frequently referred to as just plain power).

Power

Power is defined as the rate of doing work, or the limit of the average power for time intervals approaching zero,

P=dWdt.P=dWdt.
(7.11)

If the power is constant over a time interval, the average power for that interval equals the instantaneous power, and the work done by the agent supplying the power is W=PΔtW=PΔt. If the power during an interval varies with time, then the work done is the time integral of the power,

W=Pdt.W=Pdt.

The work-energy theorem relates how work can be transformed into kinetic energy. Since there are other forms of energy as well, as we discuss in the next chapter, we can also define power as the rate of transfer of energy. Work and energy are measured in units of joules, so power is measured in units of joules per second, which has been given the SI name watts, abbreviation W: 1J/s=1W1J/s=1W. Another common unit for expressing the power capability of everyday devices is horsepower: 1hp=746W1hp=746W.

Example 7.11

Pull-Up PowerAn 80-kg army trainee does pull-ups on a horizontal bar (Figure 7.14). It takes the trainee 0.8 seconds to raise the body from a lower position to where the chin is above the bar. How much power do the trainee’s muscles supply moving his body from the lower position to where the chin is above the bar? (Hint: Make reasonable estimates for any quantities needed.)

The figure is an illustration of a person doing a pull up. The person moves a vertical distance of Delta y during the pull up. A downward force of m times vector g is shown acting on the person both at the top and bottom positions of the pull up.
Figure 7.14 What is the power expended in doing ten pull-ups in ten seconds?

StrategyThe work done against gravity, going up or down a distance ΔyΔy, is mgΔy.mgΔy. Let’s assume that Δy=2ft60cm.Δy=2ft60cm. Also, assume that the arms comprise 10% of the body mass and are not included in the moving mass. With these assumptions, we can calculate the work done.

Solution The result we get, applying our assumptions, is

P=mg(Δy)t= 0.9(80kg)(9.8m/s2)(0.60m)0.8s=529W.P=mg(Δy)t= 0.9(80kg)(9.8m/s2)(0.60m)0.8s=529W.

Significance This is typical for power expenditure in strenuous exercise; in everyday units, it’s somewhat more than one horsepower (1hp=746W).(1hp=746W).

Check Your Understanding 7.8

Estimate the power expended by a weightlifter raising a 150-kg barbell 2 m in 3 s.

The power involved in moving a body can also be expressed in terms of the forces acting on it. If a force FF acts on a body that is displaced drdr in a time dt, the power expended by the force is

P=dWdt=F·drdt=F·(drdt)=F·v,P=dWdt=F·drdt=F·(drdt)=F·v,
(7.12)

where vv is the velocity of the body. The fact that the limits implied by the derivatives exist, for the motion of a real body, justifies the rearrangement of the infinitesimals.

Example 7.12

Automotive Power Driving Uphill How much power must an automobile engine expend to move a 1200-kg car up a 15% grade at 90 km/h (Figure 7.15)? Assume that 25% of this power is dissipated overcoming air resistance and friction.

An automobile is shown moving up along a 15 percent grade at a speed of v = 90 kilometers per hour. The car has mass m = 1200 kilograms.
Figure 7.15 We want to calculate the power needed to move a car up a hill at constant speed.

Strategy At constant velocity, there is no change in kinetic energy, so the net work done to move the car is zero. Therefore the power supplied by the engine to move the car equals the power expended against gravity and air resistance. By assumption, 75% of the power is supplied against gravity, which equals mg·v=mgvsinθ,mg·v=mgvsinθ, where θθ is the angle of the incline. A 15% grade means tanθ=0.15.tanθ=0.15. This reasoning allows us to solve for the power required.

Solution Carrying out the suggested steps, we find

0.75P=mgvsin(tan−10.15),0.75P=mgvsin(tan−10.15),

or

P=(1200×9.8N)(90m/3.6s)sin(8.53°)0.75=58kW,P=(1200×9.8N)(90m/3.6s)sin(8.53°)0.75=58kW,

or about 78 hp. (You should supply the steps used to convert units.)

Significance This is a reasonable amount of power for the engine of a small to mid-size car to supply (1hp=0.746kW).(1hp=0.746kW). Note that this is only the power expended to move the car. Much of the engine’s power goes elsewhere, for example, into waste heat. That’s why cars need radiators. Any remaining power could be used for acceleration, or to operate the car’s accessories.

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