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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Mechanics
    1. 1 Units and Measurement
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Scope and Scale of Physics
      3. 1.2 Units and Standards
      4. 1.3 Unit Conversion
      5. 1.4 Dimensional Analysis
      6. 1.5 Estimates and Fermi Calculations
      7. 1.6 Significant Figures
      8. 1.7 Solving Problems in Physics
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 Vectors
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Scalars and Vectors
      3. 2.2 Coordinate Systems and Components of a Vector
      4. 2.3 Algebra of Vectors
      5. 2.4 Products of Vectors
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 3 Motion Along a Straight Line
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Position, Displacement, and Average Velocity
      3. 3.2 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
      4. 3.3 Average and Instantaneous Acceleration
      5. 3.4 Motion with Constant Acceleration
      6. 3.5 Free Fall
      7. 3.6 Finding Velocity and Displacement from Acceleration
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 Motion in Two and Three Dimensions
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Displacement and Velocity Vectors
      3. 4.2 Acceleration Vector
      4. 4.3 Projectile Motion
      5. 4.4 Uniform Circular Motion
      6. 4.5 Relative Motion in One and Two Dimensions
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    5. 5 Newton's Laws of Motion
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Forces
      3. 5.2 Newton's First Law
      4. 5.3 Newton's Second Law
      5. 5.4 Mass and Weight
      6. 5.5 Newton’s Third Law
      7. 5.6 Common Forces
      8. 5.7 Drawing Free-Body Diagrams
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 6 Applications of Newton's Laws
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Solving Problems with Newton’s Laws
      3. 6.2 Friction
      4. 6.3 Centripetal Force
      5. 6.4 Drag Force and Terminal Speed
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 7 Work and Kinetic Energy
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Work
      3. 7.2 Kinetic Energy
      4. 7.3 Work-Energy Theorem
      5. 7.4 Power
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    8. 8 Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Potential Energy of a System
      3. 8.2 Conservative and Non-Conservative Forces
      4. 8.3 Conservation of Energy
      5. 8.4 Potential Energy Diagrams and Stability
      6. 8.5 Sources of Energy
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    9. 9 Linear Momentum and Collisions
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Linear Momentum
      3. 9.2 Impulse and Collisions
      4. 9.3 Conservation of Linear Momentum
      5. 9.4 Types of Collisions
      6. 9.5 Collisions in Multiple Dimensions
      7. 9.6 Center of Mass
      8. 9.7 Rocket Propulsion
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    10. 10 Fixed-Axis Rotation
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Rotational Variables
      3. 10.2 Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration
      4. 10.3 Relating Angular and Translational Quantities
      5. 10.4 Moment of Inertia and Rotational Kinetic Energy
      6. 10.5 Calculating Moments of Inertia
      7. 10.6 Torque
      8. 10.7 Newton’s Second Law for Rotation
      9. 10.8 Work and Power for Rotational Motion
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    11. 11 Angular Momentum
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Rolling Motion
      3. 11.2 Angular Momentum
      4. 11.3 Conservation of Angular Momentum
      5. 11.4 Precession of a Gyroscope
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    12. 12 Static Equilibrium and Elasticity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Conditions for Static Equilibrium
      3. 12.2 Examples of Static Equilibrium
      4. 12.3 Stress, Strain, and Elastic Modulus
      5. 12.4 Elasticity and Plasticity
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    13. 13 Gravitation
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
      3. 13.2 Gravitation Near Earth's Surface
      4. 13.3 Gravitational Potential Energy and Total Energy
      5. 13.4 Satellite Orbits and Energy
      6. 13.5 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
      7. 13.6 Tidal Forces
      8. 13.7 Einstein's Theory of Gravity
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    14. 14 Fluid Mechanics
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Fluids, Density, and Pressure
      3. 14.2 Measuring Pressure
      4. 14.3 Pascal's Principle and Hydraulics
      5. 14.4 Archimedes’ Principle and Buoyancy
      6. 14.5 Fluid Dynamics
      7. 14.6 Bernoulli’s Equation
      8. 14.7 Viscosity and Turbulence
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Waves and Acoustics
    1. 15 Oscillations
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 Simple Harmonic Motion
      3. 15.2 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
      4. 15.3 Comparing Simple Harmonic Motion and Circular Motion
      5. 15.4 Pendulums
      6. 15.5 Damped Oscillations
      7. 15.6 Forced Oscillations
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 16 Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Traveling Waves
      3. 16.2 Mathematics of Waves
      4. 16.3 Wave Speed on a Stretched String
      5. 16.4 Energy and Power of a Wave
      6. 16.5 Interference of Waves
      7. 16.6 Standing Waves and Resonance
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 17 Sound
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Sound Waves
      3. 17.2 Speed of Sound
      4. 17.3 Sound Intensity
      5. 17.4 Normal Modes of a Standing Sound Wave
      6. 17.5 Sources of Musical Sound
      7. 17.6 Beats
      8. 17.7 The Doppler Effect
      9. 17.8 Shock Waves
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
  12. Index

Problems

12.1 Conditions for Static Equilibrium

24.

When tightening a bolt, you push perpendicularly on a wrench with a force of 165 N at a distance of 0.140 m from the center of the bolt. How much torque are you exerting relative to the center of the bolt?

25.

When opening a door, you push on it perpendicularly with a force of 55.0 N at a distance of 0.850 m from the hinges. What torque are you exerting relative to the hinges?

26.

Find the magnitude of the tension in each supporting cable shown below. In each case, the weight of the suspended body is 100.0 N and the masses of the cables are negligible.

Figure A shows small pan of mass supported by string T3 that is tied to strings T1 and T2. Strings T1 and T2 are connected to two beams intersecting at a 90 degree angle. String T1 is perpendicular to the beam it is connected to. String T2 forms a 45 degree angle with the beam it is connected to. Figure B shows small pan of mass supported by string T2 that is tied to two identical strings T1. Strings T1 form 60 degree angles with the beam they are connected to. Figure C shows small pan of mass supported by string T3 that is tied to strings T1 and T2. String T1 and T2 form 60 and 45 degree angles, respectively, with the beam they are connected to. Figure D shows small pan of mass supported by string T4 that is tied to two strings T3 forming 6o degrees angle with the string T2. String T2 is connected to the beam by two strings T1. Strings T1 form 45 degree angles with the beam.
27.

What force must be applied at point P to keep the structure shown in equilibrium? The weight of the structure is negligible.

Figure shows the distribution of forces applied to point P. Force of 2000 N, two meters to the left of the point P, moves it downwards. Force of 4000 N, two meters to the right and one meter above of the point P, moves it to the right.
28.

Is it possible to apply a force at P to keep in equilibrium the structure shown? The weight of the structure is negligible.

Figure shows the distribution of forces applied to point P. Force of 2000 N, two meters to the left of the point P, moves it downwards. Force of 3000 N, two meters to the right of the point P, moves it upwards. Force of 5000 N, two meters to the right and one meter above of the point P, moves it to the right.
29.

Two children push on opposite sides of a door during play. Both push horizontally and perpendicular to the door. One child pushes with a force of 17.5 N at a distance of 0.600 m from the hinges, and the second child pushes at a distance of 0.450 m. What force must the second child exert to keep the door from moving? Assume friction is negligible.

30.

A small 1000-kg SUV has a wheel base of 3.0 m. If 60% if its weight rests on the front wheels, how far behind the front wheels is the wagon’s center of mass?

31.

The uniform seesaw is balanced at its center of mass, as seen below. The smaller boy on the right has a mass of 40.0 kg. What is the mass of his friend?

Figure is a schematic drawing of two boys on the seesaw. One boy sits two meters from the edge of the seesaw and two meters from the center. Another boys sits at the opposite edge of the seesaw, four meters from the center.

12.2 Examples of Static Equilibrium

32.

A uniform plank rests on a level surface as shown below. The plank has a mass of 30 kg and is 6.0 m long. How much mass can be placed at its right end before it tips? (Hint: When the board is about to tip over, it makes contact with the surface only along the edge that becomes a momentary axis of rotation.)

Figure schematic drawing of uniform plank rests on a level surface. Part of the plank that is 4.2 meters long is supported by the plank. Part of the plank that is 1.8 meters long is hanging over it.
33.

The uniform seesaw shown below is balanced on a fulcrum located 3.0 m from the left end. The smaller boy on the right has a mass of 40 kg and the bigger boy on the left has a mass 80 kg. What is the mass of the board?

Figure is a schematic drawing of two boys on the seesaw. One boy sits on the edge of the seesaw three meters from the center. Another boys sits at the opposite edge of the seesaw, five meters from the center.
34.

In order to get his car out of the mud, a man ties one end of a rope to the front bumper and the other end to a tree 15 m away, as shown below. He then pulls on the center of the rope with a force of 400 N, which causes its center to be displaced 0.30 m, as shown. What is the force of the rope on the car?

Figure is a schematic drawing that shows a rope tied to the front bumper and the other end to a tree 15 m away. A force of 400 N is applied to the center of the rope and causes it to get displaced 0.30 m.
35.

A uniform 40.0-kg scaffold of length 6.0 m is supported by two light cables, as shown below. An 80.0-kg painter stands 1.0 m from the left end of the scaffold, and his painting equipment is 1.5 m from the right end. If the tension in the left cable is twice that in the right cable, find the tensions in the cables and the mass of the equipment.

Figure is a schematic drawing of a man standing at the left side and the bucket placed at the right side of a scaffold.
36.

When the structure shown below is supported at point P, it is in equilibrium. Find the magnitude of force F and the force applied at P. The weight of the structure is negligible.

Figure shows the distribution of forces applied to point P. Force of 2000 N, two meters to the left of the point P, moves it downwards. Force F, two meters to the left and two meters above of the point P, moves it to the right. Force of 1000 N, two meters to the right and three meters below of the point P, moves it to the left.
37.

To get up on the roof, a person (mass 70.0 kg) places a 6.00-m aluminum ladder (mass 10.0 kg) against the house on a concrete pad with the base of the ladder 2.00 m from the house. The ladder rests against a plastic rain gutter, which we can assume to be frictionless. The center of mass of the ladder is 2.00 m from the bottom. The person is standing 3.00 m from the bottom. Find the normal reaction and friction forces on the ladder at its base.

38.

A uniform horizontal strut weighs 400.0 N. One end of the strut is attached to a hinged support at the wall, and the other end of the strut is attached to a sign that weighs 200.0 N. The strut is also supported by a cable attached between the end of the strut and the wall. Assuming that the entire weight of the sign is attached at the very end of the strut, find the tension in the cable and the force at the hinge of the strut.

Figure is a schematic drawing of a sign which hangs from the end of a uniform strut. The strut forms a 30 degree angle with the cable tied to the wall above the left end of the strut.
39.

The forearm shown below is positioned at an angle θθ with respect to the upper arm, and a 5.0-kg mass is held in the hand. The total mass of the forearm and hand is 3.0 kg, and their center of mass is 15.0 cm from the elbow. (a) What is the magnitude of the force that the biceps muscle exerts on the forearm for θ=60°?θ=60°? (b) What is the magnitude of the force on the elbow joint for the same angle? (c) How do these forces depend on the angle θ?θ?

Figure is a schematic drawing of a forearm rotated around the elbow. A 5 kilogram ball is held in the palm. The distance between the elbow and the ball is 35 centimeters. The distance between the elbow and the biceps muscle, which causes a torque around the elbow, is 4 centimeters. Forearm forms a theta angle with the upper arm.
40.

The uniform boom shown below weighs 3000 N. It is supported by the horizontal guy wire and by the hinged support at point A. What are the forces on the boom due to the wire and due to the support at A? Does the force at A act along the boom?

Figure is a schematic drawing of a 2000 N weight that is supported by the horizontal guy wire and by the hinged support at point A. Hinged support forms a 45 degree angle with the ground.
41.

The uniform boom shown below weighs 700 N, and the object hanging from its right end weighs 400 N. The boom is supported by a light cable and by a hinge at the wall. Calculate the tension in the cable and the force on the hinge on the boom. Does the force on the hinge act along the boom?

Figure is a schematic drawing of a 400 N weight that is by a cable and by a hinge at the wall. Hinge forms a 20 degree angle with the line perpendicular to the wall. Cable forms a 45 degree angle with the line perpendicular to the wall.
42.

A 12.0-m boom, AB, of a crane lifting a 3000-kg load is shown below. The center of mass of the boom is at its geometric center, and the mass of the boom is 1000 kg. For the position shown, calculate tension T in the cable and the force at the axle A.

Figure is a schematic drawing of a crane lifting a 3000-kg load. Arm of a crane forms a 30 degree angle with the line parallel to the ground. Cable supporting load forms a 10 degree angle with the arm.
43.

A uniform trapdoor shown below is 1.0 m by 1.5 m and weighs 300 N. It is supported by a single hinge (H), and by a light rope tied between the middle of the door and the floor. The door is held at the position shown, where its slab makes a 30°30° angle with the horizontal floor and the rope makes a 20°20° angle with the floor. Find the tension in the rope and the force at the hinge.

Figure is a schematic drawing of a trapdoor that is 1.0 m by 1.5 m. Door is supported by a single hinge labeled H, and by a light rope tied between the middle of the door and the floor. The door makes a 30 degree angle with the floor and the rope makes a 20 degree angle with the floor.
44.

A 90-kg man walks on a sawhorse, as shown below. The sawhorse is 2.0 m long and 1.0 m high, and its mass is 25.0 kg. Calculate the normal reaction force on each leg at the contact point with the floor when the man is 0.5 m from the far end of the sawhorse. (Hint: At each end, find the total reaction force first. This reaction force is the vector sum of two reaction forces, each acting along one leg. The normal reaction force at the contact point with the floor is the normal (with respect to the floor) component of this force.)

Figure is a schematic drawing of a man walks on a sawhorse. Each side of the sawhorse is supported by two connected legs. There are 60 degree angles between the legs.

12.3 Stress, Strain, and Elastic Modulus

45.

The “lead” in pencils is a graphite composition with a Young’s modulus of approximately 1.0×109N/m2.1.0×109N/m2. Calculate the change in length of the lead in an automatic pencil if you tap it straight into the pencil with a force of 4.0 N. The lead is 0.50 mm in diameter and 60 mm long.

46.

TV broadcast antennas are the tallest artificial structures on Earth. In 1987, a 72.0-kg physicist placed himself and 400 kg of equipment at the top of a 610-m-high antenna to perform gravity experiments. By how much was the antenna compressed, if we consider it to be equivalent to a steel cylinder 0.150 m in radius?

47.

By how much does a 65.0-kg mountain climber stretch her 0.800-cm diameter nylon rope when she hangs 35.0 m below a rock outcropping? (For nylon, Y=1.35×109Pa.)Y=1.35×109Pa.)

48.

When water freezes, its volume increases by 9.05%. What force per unit area is water capable of exerting on a container when it freezes?

49.

A farmer making grape juice fills a glass bottle to the brim and caps it tightly. The juice expands more than the glass when it warms up, in such a way that the volume increases by 0.2%. Calculate the force exerted by the juice per square centimeter if its bulk modulus is 1.8×109N/m2,1.8×109N/m2, assuming the bottle does not break.

50.

A disk between vertebrae in the spine is subjected to a shearing force of 600.0 N. Find its shear deformation, using the shear modulus of 1.0×109N/m2.1.0×109N/m2. The disk is equivalent to a solid cylinder 0.700 cm high and 4.00 cm in diameter.

51.

A vertebra is subjected to a shearing force of 500.0 N. Find the shear deformation, taking the vertebra to be a cylinder 3.00 cm high and 4.00 cm in diameter. How does your result compare with the result obtained in the preceding problem? Are spinal problems more common in disks than in vertebrae?

52.

Calculate the force a piano tuner applies to stretch a steel piano wire by 8.00 mm, if the wire is originally 1.35 m long and its diameter is 0.850 mm.

53.

A 20.0-m-tall hollow aluminum flagpole is equivalent in strength to a solid cylinder 4.00 cm in diameter. A strong wind bends the pole as much as a horizontal 900.0-N force on the top would do. How far to the side does the top of the pole flex?

54.

A copper wire of diameter 1.0 cm stretches 1.0% when it is used to lift a load upward with an acceleration of 2.0m/s2.2.0m/s2. What is the weight of the load?

55.

As an oil well is drilled, each new section of drill pipe supports its own weight and the weight of the pipe and the drill bit beneath it. Calculate the stretch in a new 6.00-m-long steel pipe that supports a 100-kg drill bit and a 3.00-km length of pipe with a linear mass density of 20.0 kg/m. Treat the pipe as a solid cylinder with a 5.00-cm diameter.

56.

A large uniform cylindrical steel rod of density ρ=7.8g/cm3ρ=7.8g/cm3 is 2.0 m long and has a diameter of 5.0 cm. The rod is fastened to a concrete floor with its long axis vertical. What is the normal stress in the rod at the cross-section located at (a) 1.0 m from its lower end? (b) 1.5 m from the lower end?

57.

A 90-kg mountain climber hangs from a nylon rope and stretches it by 25.0 cm. If the rope was originally 30.0 m long and its diameter is 1.0 cm, what is Young’s modulus for the nylon?

58.

A suspender rod of a suspension bridge is 25.0 m long. If the rod is made of steel, what must its diameter be so that it does not stretch more than 1.0 cm when a 2.5×104-kg2.5×104-kg truck passes by it? Assume that the rod supports all of the weight of the truck.

59.

A copper wire is 1.0 m long and its diameter is 1.0 mm. If the wire hangs vertically, how much weight must be added to its free end in order to stretch it 3.0 mm?

60.

A 100-N weight is attached to a free end of a metallic wire that hangs from the ceiling. When a second 100-N weight is added to the wire, it stretches 3.0 mm. The diameter and the length of the wire are 1.0 mm and 2.0 m, respectively. What is Young’s modulus of the metal used to manufacture the wire?

61.

The bulk modulus of a material is 1.0×1011N/m2.1.0×1011N/m2. What fractional change in volume does a piece of this material undergo when it is subjected to a bulk stress increase of 107N/m2?107N/m2? Assume that the force is applied uniformly over the surface.

62.

Normal forces of magnitude 1.0×106N1.0×106N are applied uniformly to a spherical surface enclosing a volume of a liquid. This causes the radius of the surface to decrease from 50.000 cm to 49.995 cm. What is the bulk modulus of the liquid?

63.

During a walk on a rope, a tightrope walker creates a tension of 3.94×103N3.94×103N in a wire that is stretched between two supporting poles that are 15.0 m apart. The wire has a diameter of 0.50 cm when it is not stretched. When the walker is on the wire in the middle between the poles the wire makes an angle of 5.0°5.0° below the horizontal. How much does this tension stretch the steel wire when the walker is this position?

64.

When using a pencil eraser, you exert a vertical force of 6.00 N at a distance of 2.00 cm from the hardwood-eraser joint. The pencil is 6.00 mm in diameter and is held at an angle of 20.0°20.0° to the horizontal. (a) By how much does the wood flex perpendicular to its length? (b) How much is it compressed lengthwise?

65.

Normal forces are applied uniformly over the surface of a spherical volume of water whose radius is 20.0 cm. If the pressure on the surface is increased by 200 MPa, by how much does the radius of the sphere decrease?

12.4 Elasticity and Plasticity

66.

A uniform rope of cross-sectional area 0.50cm20.50cm2 breaks when the tensile stress in it reaches 6.00×106N/m2.6.00×106N/m2. (a) What is the maximum load that can be lifted slowly at a constant speed by the rope? (b) What is the maximum load that can be lifted by the rope with an acceleration of 4.00m/s2?4.00m/s2?

67.

One end of a vertical metallic wire of length 2.0 m and diameter 1.0 mm is attached to a ceiling, and the other end is attached to a 5.0-N weight pan, as shown below. The position of the pointer before the pan is 4.000 cm. Different weights are then added to the pan area, and the position of the pointer is recorded in the table shown. Plot stress versus strain for this wire, then use the resulting curve to determine Young’s modulus and the proportionality limit of the metal. What metal is this most likely to be?

Added load (including pan)
(N)
Scale reading
(cm)
0 4.000
15 4.036
25 4.073
35 4.109
45 4.146
55 4.181
65 4.221
75 4.266
85 4.316
Figure shows vertical wire attached to a ceiling with the other end is attached to a weight pan.
68.

An aluminum (ρ=2.7g/cm3)(ρ=2.7g/cm3) wire is suspended from the ceiling and hangs vertically. How long must the wire be before the stress at its upper end reaches the proportionality limit, which is 8.0×107N/m2?8.0×107N/m2?

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