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University Physics Volume 1

11.4 Precession of a Gyroscope

University Physics Volume 111.4 Precession of a Gyroscope
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  1. Preface
  2. Unit 1. Mechanics
    1. 1 Units and Measurement
      1. Introduction
      2. 1.1 The Scope and Scale of Physics
      3. 1.2 Units and Standards
      4. 1.3 Unit Conversion
      5. 1.4 Dimensional Analysis
      6. 1.5 Estimates and Fermi Calculations
      7. 1.6 Significant Figures
      8. 1.7 Solving Problems in Physics
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 2 Vectors
      1. Introduction
      2. 2.1 Scalars and Vectors
      3. 2.2 Coordinate Systems and Components of a Vector
      4. 2.3 Algebra of Vectors
      5. 2.4 Products of Vectors
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 3 Motion Along a Straight Line
      1. Introduction
      2. 3.1 Position, Displacement, and Average Velocity
      3. 3.2 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed
      4. 3.3 Average and Instantaneous Acceleration
      5. 3.4 Motion with Constant Acceleration
      6. 3.5 Free Fall
      7. 3.6 Finding Velocity and Displacement from Acceleration
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    4. 4 Motion in Two and Three Dimensions
      1. Introduction
      2. 4.1 Displacement and Velocity Vectors
      3. 4.2 Acceleration Vector
      4. 4.3 Projectile Motion
      5. 4.4 Uniform Circular Motion
      6. 4.5 Relative Motion in One and Two Dimensions
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    5. 5 Newton's Laws of Motion
      1. Introduction
      2. 5.1 Forces
      3. 5.2 Newton's First Law
      4. 5.3 Newton's Second Law
      5. 5.4 Mass and Weight
      6. 5.5 Newton’s Third Law
      7. 5.6 Common Forces
      8. 5.7 Drawing Free-Body Diagrams
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    6. 6 Applications of Newton's Laws
      1. Introduction
      2. 6.1 Solving Problems with Newton’s Laws
      3. 6.2 Friction
      4. 6.3 Centripetal Force
      5. 6.4 Drag Force and Terminal Speed
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    7. 7 Work and Kinetic Energy
      1. Introduction
      2. 7.1 Work
      3. 7.2 Kinetic Energy
      4. 7.3 Work-Energy Theorem
      5. 7.4 Power
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    8. 8 Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy
      1. Introduction
      2. 8.1 Potential Energy of a System
      3. 8.2 Conservative and Non-Conservative Forces
      4. 8.3 Conservation of Energy
      5. 8.4 Potential Energy Diagrams and Stability
      6. 8.5 Sources of Energy
      7. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
    9. 9 Linear Momentum and Collisions
      1. Introduction
      2. 9.1 Linear Momentum
      3. 9.2 Impulse and Collisions
      4. 9.3 Conservation of Linear Momentum
      5. 9.4 Types of Collisions
      6. 9.5 Collisions in Multiple Dimensions
      7. 9.6 Center of Mass
      8. 9.7 Rocket Propulsion
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    10. 10 Fixed-Axis Rotation
      1. Introduction
      2. 10.1 Rotational Variables
      3. 10.2 Rotation with Constant Angular Acceleration
      4. 10.3 Relating Angular and Translational Quantities
      5. 10.4 Moment of Inertia and Rotational Kinetic Energy
      6. 10.5 Calculating Moments of Inertia
      7. 10.6 Torque
      8. 10.7 Newton’s Second Law for Rotation
      9. 10.8 Work and Power for Rotational Motion
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    11. 11 Angular Momentum
      1. Introduction
      2. 11.1 Rolling Motion
      3. 11.2 Angular Momentum
      4. 11.3 Conservation of Angular Momentum
      5. 11.4 Precession of a Gyroscope
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    12. 12 Static Equilibrium and Elasticity
      1. Introduction
      2. 12.1 Conditions for Static Equilibrium
      3. 12.2 Examples of Static Equilibrium
      4. 12.3 Stress, Strain, and Elastic Modulus
      5. 12.4 Elasticity and Plasticity
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    13. 13 Gravitation
      1. Introduction
      2. 13.1 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
      3. 13.2 Gravitation Near Earth's Surface
      4. 13.3 Gravitational Potential Energy and Total Energy
      5. 13.4 Satellite Orbits and Energy
      6. 13.5 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
      7. 13.6 Tidal Forces
      8. 13.7 Einstein's Theory of Gravity
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    14. 14 Fluid Mechanics
      1. Introduction
      2. 14.1 Fluids, Density, and Pressure
      3. 14.2 Measuring Pressure
      4. 14.3 Pascal's Principle and Hydraulics
      5. 14.4 Archimedes’ Principle and Buoyancy
      6. 14.5 Fluid Dynamics
      7. 14.6 Bernoulli’s Equation
      8. 14.7 Viscosity and Turbulence
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  3. Unit 2. Waves and Acoustics
    1. 15 Oscillations
      1. Introduction
      2. 15.1 Simple Harmonic Motion
      3. 15.2 Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion
      4. 15.3 Comparing Simple Harmonic Motion and Circular Motion
      5. 15.4 Pendulums
      6. 15.5 Damped Oscillations
      7. 15.6 Forced Oscillations
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    2. 16 Waves
      1. Introduction
      2. 16.1 Traveling Waves
      3. 16.2 Mathematics of Waves
      4. 16.3 Wave Speed on a Stretched String
      5. 16.4 Energy and Power of a Wave
      6. 16.5 Interference of Waves
      7. 16.6 Standing Waves and Resonance
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
    3. 17 Sound
      1. Introduction
      2. 17.1 Sound Waves
      3. 17.2 Speed of Sound
      4. 17.3 Sound Intensity
      5. 17.4 Normal Modes of a Standing Sound Wave
      6. 17.5 Sources of Musical Sound
      7. 17.6 Beats
      8. 17.7 The Doppler Effect
      9. 17.8 Shock Waves
      10. Chapter Review
        1. Key Terms
        2. Key Equations
        3. Summary
        4. Conceptual Questions
        5. Problems
        6. Additional Problems
        7. Challenge Problems
  4. A | Units
  5. B | Conversion Factors
  6. C | Fundamental Constants
  7. D | Astronomical Data
  8. E | Mathematical Formulas
  9. F | Chemistry
  10. G | The Greek Alphabet
  11. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
  12. Index

Learning Objectives

By the end of this section, you will be able to:
  • Describe the physical processes underlying the phenomenon of precession
  • Calculate the precessional angular velocity of a gyroscope

Figure 11.19 shows a gyroscope, defined as a spinning disk in which the axis of rotation is free to assume any orientation. When spinning, the orientation of the spin axis is unaffected by the orientation of the body that encloses it. The body or vehicle enclosing the gyroscope can be moved from place to place and the orientation of the spin axis will remain the same. This makes gyroscopes very useful in navigation, especially where magnetic compasses can’t be used, such as in piloted and unpiloted spacecrafts, intercontinental ballistic missiles, unmanned aerial vehicles, and satellites like the Hubble Space Telescope.

A drawing of a gyroscope, consisting of a disk that can spin on an shaft, perpendicular to the plane of the disk and through its center. Two rings surround the gyroscope. One is attached to the shaft above and below the disk, and the other is attached to the first ring and is in the plane of the disk so that this second ring is concentric with the disk.
Figure 11.19 A gyroscope consists of a spinning disk about an axis that is free to assume any orientation.

We illustrate the precession of a gyroscope with an example of a top in the next two figures. If the top is placed on a flat surface near the surface of Earth at an angle to the vertical and is not spinning, it will fall over, due to the force of gravity producing a torque acting on its center of mass. This is shown in Figure 11.20(a). However, if the top is spinning on its axis, rather than topple over due to this torque, it precesses about the vertical, shown in part (b) of the figure. This is due to the torque on the center of mass, which provides the change in angular momentum.

Figure a: An x y z coordinate system is show, with x out of the page, y to the right, and z up. The origin is point O. A top is shown with its point at the origin and its axis tilted away from the vertical z axis. The axis of the top is the line O O prime. The vector r extends from the origin to the center of the mass, labeled as C M, of the top. The force M g acts downward at the center of mass. The torque about the origin is equal to vector r crossed with M vector g. This torque is a vector in the x y plane, perpendicular to the r vector. Figure b: The x y z coordinate and the top are shown. The top is again tilted away from the z axis and is spinning rapidly counterclockwise about the O O prime axis as viewed from above. The precession of the top traces a counterclockwise circle as viewed from above, centered on the z axis. The cone swept by the precession of the top is indicated using dashed lines.
Figure 11.20 (a) If the top is not spinning, there is a torque r×Mgr×Mg about the origin, and the top falls over. (b) If the top is spinning about its axis OO,OO, it doesn’t fall over but precesses about the z-axis.

Figure 11.21 shows the forces acting on a spinning top. The torque produced is perpendicular to the angular momentum vector. This changes the direction of the angular momentum vector LL according to dL=τdt,dL=τdt, but not its magnitude. The top precesses around a vertical axis, since the torque is always horizontal and perpendicular to LL. If the top is not spinning, it acquires angular momentum in the direction of the torque, and it rotates around a horizontal axis, falling over just as we would expect.

An x y z coordinate system is show, with x out of the page, y to the right, and z up. The origin is point O. A top is shown with its point at the origin and its axis tilted by an angle theta away from the vertical z axis, clockwise as we view it. The vector r extends from the origin to the center of the mass, labeled as C M, of the top. The force M g acts downward at the center of mass. The torque, tau, about the origin is equal to vector r crossed with M vector g. This torque is a vector in the x y plane, perpendicular to the r vector, into the page. The angular velocity, omega, of the top is counterclockwise as viewed from above. The angular momentum, L, is in the same direction as the r vector, tilted up along the axis of the top. The circle traced by the precession of the top is shown as a horizontal circle above the top. The precession angular velocity omega sub p is counterclockwise as viewed from above. The radius of the precession circle is L sine theta. The vector d L is tangent to the circle, pointing into the page, and is equal to vector tau d t. The triangle formed L sine theta and d L is shown, and the angle across from d L is labeled as d phi.
Figure 11.21 The force of gravity acting on the center of mass produces a torque ττ in the direction perpendicular to L.L. The magnitude of LL doesn’t change but its direction does, and the top precesses about the z-axis.

We can experience this phenomenon first hand by holding a spinning bicycle wheel and trying to rotate it about an axis perpendicular to the spin axis. As shown in Figure 11.22, the person applies forces perpendicular to the spin axis in an attempt to rotate the wheel, but instead, the wheel axis starts to change direction to her left due to the applied torque.

In figure a, a woman, facing the viewer, is holding a spinning bike wheel of radius r by the axle. The wheel is so that the angular velocity omega and angular momentum L are along the axis of rotation of the wheel, to her left (the viewer’s right.) That is, the motion of the wheel is such that the bottom of the wheel is moving toward her (into the page.) The direction of the force F applied by her left hand is shown downward and that by her right hand in upward direction. The torque tau is toward her (into the page.) In figure b, addition of two vectors L and delta-L, which is parallel to torque tau, is shown. The resultant of the two vectors is labeled as L plus delta L. The direction of rotation, omega sub p, is counterclockwise as viewed from above.
Figure 11.22 (a) A person holding the spinning bike wheel lifts it with her right hand and pushes down with her left hand in an attempt to rotate the wheel. This action creates a torque directly toward her. This torque causes a change in angular momentum ΔLΔL in exactly the same direction. (b) A vector diagram depicting how ΔLandLΔLandL add, producing a new angular momentum pointing more toward the person. The wheel moves toward the person, perpendicular to the forces she exerts on it.

We all know how easy it is for a bicycle to tip over when sitting on it at rest. But when riding the bicycle at a good pace, tipping it over involves changing the angular momentum vector of the spinning wheels.

Interactive

View the video on gyroscope precession for a complete demonstration of precession of the bicycle wheel.

Also, when a spinning disk is put in a box such as a Blu-Ray player, try to move it. It is easy to translate the box in a given direction but difficult to rotate it about an axis perpendicular to the axis of the spinning disk, since we are putting a torque on the box that will cause the angular momentum vector of the spinning disk to precess.

We can calculate the precession rate of the top in Figure 11.21. From Figure 11.21, we see that the magnitude of the torque is

τ=rMgsinθ.τ=rMgsinθ.

Thus,

dL=rMgsinθdt.dL=rMgsinθdt.

The angle the top precesses through in time dt is

dϕ=dLLsinθ=rMgsinθLsinθdt=rMgLdt.dϕ=dLLsinθ=rMgsinθLsinθdt=rMgLdt.

The precession angular velocity is ωP=dϕdtωP=dϕdt and from this equation we see that

ωP=rMgL.or, sinceL=Iω,ωP=rMgL.or, sinceL=Iω,
ωP=rMgIω.ωP=rMgIω.
(11.12)

In this derivation, we assumed that ωPω,ωPω, that is, that the precession angular velocity is much less than the angular velocity of the gyroscope disk. The precession angular velocity adds a small component to the angular momentum along the z-axis. This is seen in a slight bob up and down as the gyroscope precesses, referred to as nutation.

Earth itself acts like a gigantic gyroscope. Its angular momentum is along its axis and currently points at Polaris, the North Star. But Earth is slowly precessing (once in about 26,000 years) due to the torque of the Sun and the Moon on its nonspherical shape.

Example 11.10

Period of Precession A gyroscope spins with its tip on the ground and is spinning with negligible frictional resistance. The disk of the gyroscope has mass 0.3 kg and is spinning at 20 rev/s. Its center of mass is 5.0 cm from the pivot and the radius of the disk is 5.0 cm. What is the precessional period of the gyroscope?

Strategy We use Equation 11.12 to find the precessional angular velocity of the gyroscope. This allows us to find the period of precession.

Solution The moment of inertia of the disk is

I=12mr2=12(0.30kg)(0.05m)2=3.75×10−4kg·m2.I=12mr2=12(0.30kg)(0.05m)2=3.75×10−4kg·m2.

The angular velocity of the disk is

20.0rev/s=20.0(2π)rad/s=125.66rad/s.20.0rev/s=20.0(2π)rad/s=125.66rad/s.

We can now substitute in Equation 11.12. The precessional angular velocity is

ωP=rMgIω=(0.05m)(0.3kg)(9.8m/s2)(3.75×10−4kg·m2)(125.66rad/s)=3.12rad/s.ωP=rMgIω=(0.05m)(0.3kg)(9.8m/s2)(3.75×10−4kg·m2)(125.66rad/s)=3.12rad/s.

The precessional period of the gyroscope is

TP=2π3.12rad/s=2.0s.TP=2π3.12rad/s=2.0s.

Significance The precessional angular frequency of the gyroscope, 3.12 rad/s, or about 0.5 rev/s, is much less than the angular velocity 20 rev/s of the gyroscope disk. Therefore, we don’t expect a large component of the angular momentum to arise due to precession, and Equation 11.12 is a good approximation of the precessional angular velocity.

Check Your Understanding 11.5

A top has a precession frequency of 5.0 rad/s on Earth. What is its precession frequency on the Moon?

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