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Statistics

4.7 Discrete Distribution (Playing Card Experiment)

Statistics4.7 Discrete Distribution (Playing Card Experiment)
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Sampling and Data
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Definitions of Statistics, Probability, and Key Terms
    3. 1.2 Data, Sampling, and Variation in Data and Sampling
    4. 1.3 Frequency, Frequency Tables, and Levels of Measurement
    5. 1.4 Experimental Design and Ethics
    6. 1.5 Data Collection Experiment
    7. 1.6 Sampling Experiment
    8. Key Terms
    9. Chapter Review
    10. Practice
    11. Homework
    12. Bringing It Together: Homework
    13. References
    14. Solutions
  3. 2 Descriptive Statistics
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Stem-and-Leaf Graphs (Stemplots), Line Graphs, and Bar Graphs
    3. 2.2 Histograms, Frequency Polygons, and Time Series Graphs
    4. 2.3 Measures of the Location of the Data
    5. 2.4 Box Plots
    6. 2.5 Measures of the Center of the Data
    7. 2.6 Skewness and the Mean, Median, and Mode
    8. 2.7 Measures of the Spread of the Data
    9. 2.8 Descriptive Statistics
    10. Key Terms
    11. Chapter Review
    12. Formula Review
    13. Practice
    14. Homework
    15. Bringing It Together: Homework
    16. References
    17. Solutions
  4. 3 Probability Topics
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Terminology
    3. 3.2 Independent and Mutually Exclusive Events
    4. 3.3 Two Basic Rules of Probability
    5. 3.4 Contingency Tables
    6. 3.5 Tree and Venn Diagrams
    7. 3.6 Probability Topics
    8. Key Terms
    9. Chapter Review
    10. Formula Review
    11. Practice
    12. Bringing It Together: Practice
    13. Homework
    14. Bringing It Together: Homework
    15. References
    16. Solutions
  5. 4 Discrete Random Variables
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Probability Distribution Function (PDF) for a Discrete Random Variable
    3. 4.2 Mean or Expected Value and Standard Deviation
    4. 4.3 Binomial Distribution (Optional)
    5. 4.4 Geometric Distribution (Optional)
    6. 4.5 Hypergeometric Distribution (Optional)
    7. 4.6 Poisson Distribution (Optional)
    8. 4.7 Discrete Distribution (Playing Card Experiment)
    9. 4.8 Discrete Distribution (Lucky Dice Experiment)
    10. Key Terms
    11. Chapter Review
    12. Formula Review
    13. Practice
    14. Homework
    15. References
    16. Solutions
  6. 5 Continuous Random Variables
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Continuous Probability Functions
    3. 5.2 The Uniform Distribution
    4. 5.3 The Exponential Distribution (Optional)
    5. 5.4 Continuous Distribution
    6. Key Terms
    7. Chapter Review
    8. Formula Review
    9. Practice
    10. Homework
    11. References
    12. Solutions
  7. 6 The Normal Distribution
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 The Standard Normal Distribution
    3. 6.2 Using the Normal Distribution
    4. 6.3 Normal Distribution—Lap Times
    5. 6.4 Normal Distribution—Pinkie Length
    6. Key Terms
    7. Chapter Review
    8. Formula Review
    9. Practice
    10. Homework
    11. References
    12. Solutions
  8. 7 The Central Limit Theorem
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 The Central Limit Theorem for Sample Means (Averages)
    3. 7.2 The Central Limit Theorem for Sums (Optional)
    4. 7.3 Using the Central Limit Theorem
    5. 7.4 Central Limit Theorem (Pocket Change)
    6. 7.5 Central Limit Theorem (Cookie Recipes)
    7. Key Terms
    8. Chapter Review
    9. Formula Review
    10. Practice
    11. Homework
    12. References
    13. Solutions
  9. 8 Confidence Intervals
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 A Single Population Mean Using the Normal Distribution
    3. 8.2 A Single Population Mean Using the Student's t-Distribution
    4. 8.3 A Population Proportion
    5. 8.4 Confidence Interval (Home Costs)
    6. 8.5 Confidence Interval (Place of Birth)
    7. 8.6 Confidence Interval (Women's Heights)
    8. Key Terms
    9. Chapter Review
    10. Formula Review
    11. Practice
    12. Homework
    13. References
    14. Solutions
  10. 9 Hypothesis Testing with One Sample
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Null and Alternative Hypotheses
    3. 9.2 Outcomes and the Type I and Type II Errors
    4. 9.3 Distribution Needed for Hypothesis Testing
    5. 9.4 Rare Events, the Sample, and the Decision and Conclusion
    6. 9.5 Additional Information and Full Hypothesis Test Examples
    7. 9.6 Hypothesis Testing of a Single Mean and Single Proportion
    8. Key Terms
    9. Chapter Review
    10. Formula Review
    11. Practice
    12. Homework
    13. References
    14. Solutions
  11. 10 Hypothesis Testing with Two Samples
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Two Population Means with Unknown Standard Deviations
    3. 10.2 Two Population Means with Known Standard Deviations
    4. 10.3 Comparing Two Independent Population Proportions
    5. 10.4 Matched or Paired Samples (Optional)
    6. 10.5 Hypothesis Testing for Two Means and Two Proportions
    7. Key Terms
    8. Chapter Review
    9. Formula Review
    10. Practice
    11. Homework
    12. Bringing It Together: Homework
    13. References
    14. Solutions
  12. 11 The Chi-Square Distribution
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Facts About the Chi-Square Distribution
    3. 11.2 Goodness-of-Fit Test
    4. 11.3 Test of Independence
    5. 11.4 Test for Homogeneity
    6. 11.5 Comparison of the Chi-Square Tests
    7. 11.6 Test of a Single Variance
    8. 11.7 Lab 1: Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit
    9. 11.8 Lab 2: Chi-Square Test of Independence
    10. Key Terms
    11. Chapter Review
    12. Formula Review
    13. Practice
    14. Homework
    15. Bringing It Together: Homework
    16. References
    17. Solutions
  13. 12 Linear Regression and Correlation
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Linear Equations
    3. 12.2 The Regression Equation
    4. 12.3 Testing the Significance of the Correlation Coefficient (Optional)
    5. 12.4 Prediction (Optional)
    6. 12.5 Outliers
    7. 12.6 Regression (Distance from School) (Optional)
    8. 12.7 Regression (Textbook Cost) (Optional)
    9. 12.8 Regression (Fuel Efficiency) (Optional)
    10. Key Terms
    11. Chapter Review
    12. Formula Review
    13. Practice
    14. Homework
    15. Bringing It Together: Homework
    16. References
    17. Solutions
  14. 13 F Distribution and One-way Anova
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 One-Way ANOVA
    3. 13.2 The F Distribution and the F Ratio
    4. 13.3 Facts About the F Distribution
    5. 13.4 Test of Two Variances
    6. 13.5 Lab: One-Way ANOVA
    7. Key Terms
    8. Chapter Review
    9. Formula Review
    10. Practice
    11. Homework
    12. References
    13. Solutions
  15. A | Appendix A Review Exercises (Ch 3–13)
  16. B | Appendix B Practice Tests (1–4) and Final Exams
  17. C | Data Sets
  18. D | Group and Partner Projects
  19. E | Solution Sheets
  20. F | Mathematical Phrases, Symbols, and Formulas
  21. G | Notes for the TI-83, 83+, 84, 84+ Calculators
  22. H | Tables
  23. Index
Stats Lab 4.1

Discrete Distribution (Playing Card Experiment)

Student Learning Outcomes
  • The student will compare empirical data and a theoretical distribution to determine if an everyday experiment fits a discrete distribution.
  • The student will compare technology-generated simulation and a theoretical distribution.
  • The student will demonstrate an understanding of long-term probabilities.
Supplies
  • One full deck of playing cards
  • Programmable calculator

Procedure for Empirical DataThe experimental procedure for empirical data is to pick one card from a deck of shuffled cards.

  1. The theoretical probability of picking a diamond from a deck is ________.
  2. Shuffle a deck of cards.
  3. Pick one card from it.
  4. Record whether it was a diamond or not a diamond.
  5. Put the card back and reshuffle.
  6. Do this a total of 10 times.
  7. Record the number of diamonds picked.
  8. Let X = number of diamonds. Theoretically, X ~ B(_____,_____)

Procedure for SimulationRepeat the experimental procedure using a programmable calculator.

  1. Use the randInt function to generate data. Consider 1 to be spades, 2 to be hearts, 3 to be diamonds, and 4 to be clubs. Generate 10 draws of cards with four suits with randInt(1,4,10).
  2. Let X= number of diamonds X= number of diamonds . Theoretically, X ~ B(_____,_____).
Organize the Empirical Data
  1. Record the number of diamonds picked for your class with playing cards in Table 4.15. Then calculate the relative frequency.
    x Frequency Relative Frequency
    0 __________ __________
    1 __________ __________
    2 __________ __________
    3 __________ __________
    4 __________ __________
    5 __________ __________
    6 __________ __________
    7 __________ __________
    8 __________ __________
    9 __________ __________
    10 __________ __________
    Table 4.15
  2. Calculate the following:
    1. x ¯ x ¯ = ________
    2. s = ________
  3. Construct a histogram of the empirical data.
    This is a blank graph template. The x-axis is labeled Number of diamonds. The y-axis is labeled Relative frequency.
    Figure 4.5
Organize the Simulation Data
  1. Use Table 4.16 to record the number of diamonds picked for your class using the calculator simulation. Calculate the relative frequency.
    X Frequency Relative Frequency
    0 __________ __________
    1 __________ __________
    2 __________ __________
    3 __________ __________
    4 __________ __________
    5 __________ __________
    6 __________ __________
    7 __________ __________
    8 __________ __________
    9 __________ __________
    10 __________ __________
    Table 4.16
  2. Calculate the following:
    1. x ¯ x ¯ = ________
    2. s = ________
  3. Construct a histogram of the simulation data.
    This is a blank graph template. The x-axis is labeled Number of diamonds. The y-axis is labeled Relative frequency.
    Figure 4.6
Theoretical Distribution
  1. Build the theoretical PDF chart based on the distribution in the Procedure section.
    x P(x)
    0
    1
    2
    3
    4
    5
    6
    7
    8
    9
    10
    Table 4.17
  2. Calculate the following:
    1. μ = ____________
    2. σ = ____________
  3. Construct a histogram of the theoretical distribution.
    This is a blank graph template. The x-axis is labeled Number of diamonds. The y-axis is labeled Probability.
    Figure 4.7

Using the Data

NOTE

RF = relative frequency

Use the table from the Theoretical Distribution section to calculate the following answers. Round your answers to four decimal places.

  • P(x = 3) = ________
  • P(1 < x < 4) = ________
  • P(x ≥ 8) = ________

Use the data from the Organize the Empirical Data section to calculate the following answers. Round your answers to four decimal places.

  • RF(x = 3) = ________
  • RF(1 < x < 4) = ________
  • RF(x ≥ 8) = ________

Use the data from the Organize the Simulation Data section to calculate the following answers. Round your answers to four decimal places.

  • RF(x = 3) = ________
  • RF(1 < x < 4) = ________
  • RF(x ≥ 8) = ________

Discussion QuestionsFor Questions 1 and 2, think about the shapes of the two graphs, the probabilities, the relative frequencies, the means, and the standard deviations.

  1. Knowing that data vary, describe three similarities between the graphs and distributions of the theoretical, empirical, and simulation distributions. Use complete sentences.
  2. Describe the three most significant differences between the graphs or distributions of the theoretical, empirical, and simulation distributions.
  3. Using your answers from Questions 1 and 2, does it appear that the two sets of data fit the theoretical distribution? In complete sentences, explain why or why not.
  4. Suppose that the experiment had been repeated 500 times. Would you expect Table 4.15, Table 4.16, or Table 4.17 to change, and how would it change? Why? Why wouldn’t the other table(s) change?
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