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Psychology

Key Terms

PsychologyKey Terms
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction to Psychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 What Is Psychology?
    3. 1.2 History of Psychology
    4. 1.3 Contemporary Psychology
    5. 1.4 Careers in Psychology
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  3. 2 Psychological Research
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Why Is Research Important?
    3. 2.2 Approaches to Research
    4. 2.3 Analyzing Findings
    5. 2.4 Ethics
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  4. 3 Biopsychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Human Genetics
    3. 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System
    4. 3.3 Parts of the Nervous System
    5. 3.4 The Brain and Spinal Cord
    6. 3.5 The Endocrine System
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
    10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. Personal Application Questions
  5. 4 States of Consciousness
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 What Is Consciousness?
    3. 4.2 Sleep and Why We Sleep
    4. 4.3 Stages of Sleep
    5. 4.4 Sleep Problems and Disorders
    6. 4.5 Substance Use and Abuse
    7. 4.6 Other States of Consciousness
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. Personal Application Questions
  6. 5 Sensation and Perception
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Sensation versus Perception
    3. 5.2 Waves and Wavelengths
    4. 5.3 Vision
    5. 5.4 Hearing
    6. 5.5 The Other Senses
    7. 5.6 Gestalt Principles of Perception
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. Personal Application Questions
  7. 6 Learning
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 What Is Learning?
    3. 6.2 Classical Conditioning
    4. 6.3 Operant Conditioning
    5. 6.4 Observational Learning (Modeling)
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  8. 7 Thinking and Intelligence
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 What Is Cognition?
    3. 7.2 Language
    4. 7.3 Problem Solving
    5. 7.4 What Are Intelligence and Creativity?
    6. 7.5 Measures of Intelligence
    7. 7.6 The Source of Intelligence
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. Personal Application Questions
  9. 8 Memory
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 How Memory Functions
    3. 8.2 Parts of the Brain Involved with Memory
    4. 8.3 Problems with Memory
    5. 8.4 Ways to Enhance Memory
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  10. 9 Lifespan Development
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 What Is Lifespan Development?
    3. 9.2 Lifespan Theories
    4. 9.3 Stages of Development
    5. 9.4 Death and Dying
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  11. 10 Emotion and Motivation
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Motivation
    3. 10.2 Hunger and Eating
    4. 10.3 Sexual Behavior
    5. 10.4 Emotion
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  12. 11 Personality
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 What Is Personality?
    3. 11.2 Freud and the Psychodynamic Perspective
    4. 11.3 Neo-Freudians: Adler, Erikson, Jung, and Horney
    5. 11.4 Learning Approaches
    6. 11.5 Humanistic Approaches
    7. 11.6 Biological Approaches
    8. 11.7 Trait Theorists
    9. 11.8 Cultural Understandings of Personality
    10. 11.9 Personality Assessment
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Review Questions
    14. Critical Thinking Questions
    15. Personal Application Questions
  13. 12 Social Psychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 What Is Social Psychology?
    3. 12.2 Self-presentation
    4. 12.3 Attitudes and Persuasion
    5. 12.4 Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
    6. 12.5 Prejudice and Discrimination
    7. 12.6 Aggression
    8. 12.7 Prosocial Behavior
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Review Questions
    12. Critical Thinking Questions
    13. Personal Application Questions
  14. 13 Industrial-Organizational Psychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 What Is Industrial and Organizational Psychology?
    3. 13.2 Industrial Psychology: Selecting and Evaluating Employees
    4. 13.3 Organizational Psychology: The Social Dimension of Work
    5. 13.4 Human Factors Psychology and Workplace Design
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  15. 14 Stress, Lifestyle, and Health
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 What Is Stress?
    3. 14.2 Stressors
    4. 14.3 Stress and Illness
    5. 14.4 Regulation of Stress
    6. 14.5 The Pursuit of Happiness
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
    10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. Personal Application Questions
  16. 15 Psychological Disorders
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 What Are Psychological Disorders?
    3. 15.2 Diagnosing and Classifying Psychological Disorders
    4. 15.3 Perspectives on Psychological Disorders
    5. 15.4 Anxiety Disorders
    6. 15.5 Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
    7. 15.6 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    8. 15.7 Mood Disorders
    9. 15.8 Schizophrenia
    10. 15.9 Dissociative Disorders
    11. 15.10 Personality Disorders
    12. 15.11 Disorders in Childhood
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Review Questions
    16. Critical Thinking Questions
    17. Personal Application Questions
  17. 16 Therapy and Treatment
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Mental Health Treatment: Past and Present
    3. 16.2 Types of Treatment
    4. 16.3 Treatment Modalities
    5. 16.4 Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders: A Special Case
    6. 16.5 The Sociocultural Model and Therapy Utilization
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
    10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. Personal Application Questions
  18. References
  19. Index
algorithm
problem-solving strategy characterized by a specific set of instructions
analytical intelligence
aligned with academic problem solving and computations
anchoring bias
faulty heuristic in which you fixate on a single aspect of a problem to find a solution
artificial concept
concept that is defined by a very specific set of characteristics
availability heuristic
faulty heuristic in which you make a decision based on information readily available to you
cognition
thinking, including perception, learning, problem solving, judgment, and memory
cognitive psychology
field of psychology dedicated to studying every aspect of how people think
cognitive script
set of behaviors that are performed the same way each time; also referred to as an event schema
concept
category or grouping of linguistic information, objects, ideas, or life experiences
confirmation bias
faulty heuristic in which you focus on information that confirms your beliefs
convergent thinking
providing correct or established answers to problems
creative intelligence
ability to produce new products, ideas, or inventing a new, novel solution to a problem
creativity
ability to generate, create, or discover new ideas, solutions, and possibilities
crystallized intelligence
characterized by acquired knowledge and the ability to retrieve it
cultural intelligence
ability with which people can understand and relate to those in another culture
divergent thinking
ability to think “outside the box” to arrive at novel solutions to a problem
dysgraphia
learning disability that causes extreme difficulty in writing legibly
dyslexia
common learning disability in which letters are not processed properly by the brain
emotional intelligence
ability to understand emotions and motivations in yourself and others
event schema
set of behaviors that are performed the same way each time; also referred to as a cognitive script
fluid intelligence
ability to see complex relationships and solve problems
Flynn effect
observation that each generation has a significantly higher IQ than the previous generation
functional fixedness
inability to see an object as useful for any other use other than the one for which it was intended
grammar
set of rules that are used to convey meaning through the use of a lexicon
heuristic
mental shortcut that saves time when solving a problem
hindsight bias
belief that the event just experienced was predictable, even though it really wasn’t
intelligence quotient
(also, IQ) score on a test designed to measure intelligence
language
communication system that involves using words to transmit information from one individual to another
lexicon
the words of a given language
mental set
continually using an old solution to a problem without results
morpheme
smallest unit of language that conveys some type of meaning
Multiple Intelligences Theory
Gardner’s theory that each person possesses at least eight types of intelligence
natural concept
mental groupings that are created “naturally” through your experiences
norming
administering a test to a large population so data can be collected to reference the normal scores for a population and its groups
overgeneralization
extension of a rule that exists in a given language to an exception to the rule
phoneme
basic sound unit of a given language
practical intelligence
aka “street smarts”
problem-solving strategy
method for solving problems
prototype
best representation of a concept
range of reaction
each person’s response to the environment is unique based on his or her genetic make-up
representative bias
faulty heuristic in which you stereotype someone or something without a valid basis for your judgment
representative sample
subset of the population that accurately represents the general population
role schema
set of expectations that define the behaviors of a person occupying a particular role
schema
(plural = schemata) mental construct consisting of a cluster or collection of related concepts
semantics
process by which we derive meaning from morphemes and words
standard deviation
measure of variability that describes the difference between a set of scores and their mean
standardization
method of testing in which administration, scoring, and interpretation of results are consistent
syntax
manner by which words are organized into sentences
trial and error
problem-solving strategy in which multiple solutions are attempted until the correct one is found
triarchic theory of intelligence
Sternberg’s theory of intelligence; three facets of intelligence: practical, creative, and analytical
working backwards
heuristic in which you begin to solve a problem by focusing on the end result
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