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Psychology

Review Questions

PsychologyReview Questions
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction to Psychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 What Is Psychology?
    3. 1.2 History of Psychology
    4. 1.3 Contemporary Psychology
    5. 1.4 Careers in Psychology
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  3. 2 Psychological Research
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Why Is Research Important?
    3. 2.2 Approaches to Research
    4. 2.3 Analyzing Findings
    5. 2.4 Ethics
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  4. 3 Biopsychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Human Genetics
    3. 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System
    4. 3.3 Parts of the Nervous System
    5. 3.4 The Brain and Spinal Cord
    6. 3.5 The Endocrine System
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
    10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. Personal Application Questions
  5. 4 States of Consciousness
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 What Is Consciousness?
    3. 4.2 Sleep and Why We Sleep
    4. 4.3 Stages of Sleep
    5. 4.4 Sleep Problems and Disorders
    6. 4.5 Substance Use and Abuse
    7. 4.6 Other States of Consciousness
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. Personal Application Questions
  6. 5 Sensation and Perception
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Sensation versus Perception
    3. 5.2 Waves and Wavelengths
    4. 5.3 Vision
    5. 5.4 Hearing
    6. 5.5 The Other Senses
    7. 5.6 Gestalt Principles of Perception
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. Personal Application Questions
  7. 6 Learning
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 What Is Learning?
    3. 6.2 Classical Conditioning
    4. 6.3 Operant Conditioning
    5. 6.4 Observational Learning (Modeling)
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  8. 7 Thinking and Intelligence
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 What Is Cognition?
    3. 7.2 Language
    4. 7.3 Problem Solving
    5. 7.4 What Are Intelligence and Creativity?
    6. 7.5 Measures of Intelligence
    7. 7.6 The Source of Intelligence
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. Personal Application Questions
  9. 8 Memory
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 How Memory Functions
    3. 8.2 Parts of the Brain Involved with Memory
    4. 8.3 Problems with Memory
    5. 8.4 Ways to Enhance Memory
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  10. 9 Lifespan Development
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 What Is Lifespan Development?
    3. 9.2 Lifespan Theories
    4. 9.3 Stages of Development
    5. 9.4 Death and Dying
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  11. 10 Emotion and Motivation
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Motivation
    3. 10.2 Hunger and Eating
    4. 10.3 Sexual Behavior
    5. 10.4 Emotion
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  12. 11 Personality
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 What Is Personality?
    3. 11.2 Freud and the Psychodynamic Perspective
    4. 11.3 Neo-Freudians: Adler, Erikson, Jung, and Horney
    5. 11.4 Learning Approaches
    6. 11.5 Humanistic Approaches
    7. 11.6 Biological Approaches
    8. 11.7 Trait Theorists
    9. 11.8 Cultural Understandings of Personality
    10. 11.9 Personality Assessment
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Review Questions
    14. Critical Thinking Questions
    15. Personal Application Questions
  13. 12 Social Psychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 What Is Social Psychology?
    3. 12.2 Self-presentation
    4. 12.3 Attitudes and Persuasion
    5. 12.4 Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
    6. 12.5 Prejudice and Discrimination
    7. 12.6 Aggression
    8. 12.7 Prosocial Behavior
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Review Questions
    12. Critical Thinking Questions
    13. Personal Application Questions
  14. 13 Industrial-Organizational Psychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 What Is Industrial and Organizational Psychology?
    3. 13.2 Industrial Psychology: Selecting and Evaluating Employees
    4. 13.3 Organizational Psychology: The Social Dimension of Work
    5. 13.4 Human Factors Psychology and Workplace Design
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  15. 14 Stress, Lifestyle, and Health
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 What Is Stress?
    3. 14.2 Stressors
    4. 14.3 Stress and Illness
    5. 14.4 Regulation of Stress
    6. 14.5 The Pursuit of Happiness
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
    10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. Personal Application Questions
  16. 15 Psychological Disorders
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 What Are Psychological Disorders?
    3. 15.2 Diagnosing and Classifying Psychological Disorders
    4. 15.3 Perspectives on Psychological Disorders
    5. 15.4 Anxiety Disorders
    6. 15.5 Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
    7. 15.6 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    8. 15.7 Mood Disorders
    9. 15.8 Schizophrenia
    10. 15.9 Dissociative Disorders
    11. 15.10 Personality Disorders
    12. 15.11 Disorders in Childhood
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Review Questions
    16. Critical Thinking Questions
    17. Personal Application Questions
  17. 16 Therapy and Treatment
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Mental Health Treatment: Past and Present
    3. 16.2 Types of Treatment
    4. 16.3 Treatment Modalities
    5. 16.4 Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders: A Special Case
    6. 16.5 The Sociocultural Model and Therapy Utilization
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
    10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. Personal Application Questions
  18. References
  19. Index
1.

Scientific hypotheses are ________ and falsifiable.

  1. observable
  2. original
  3. provable
  4. testable
2.

________ are defined as observable realities.

  1. behaviors
  2. facts
  3. opinions
  4. theories
3.

Scientific knowledge is ________.

  1. intuitive
  2. empirical
  3. permanent
  4. subjective
4.

A major criticism of Freud’s early theories involves the fact that his theories ________.

  1. were too limited in scope
  2. were too outrageous
  3. were too broad
  4. were not testable
5.

Sigmund Freud developed his theory of human personality by conducting in-depth interviews over an extended period of time with a few clients. This type of research approach is known as a(n): ________.

  1. archival research
  2. case study
  3. naturalistic observation
  4. survey
6.

________ involves observing behavior in individuals in their natural environments.

  1. archival research
  2. case study
  3. naturalistic observation
  4. survey
7.

The major limitation of case studies is ________.

  1. the superficial nature of the information collected in this approach
  2. the lack of control that the researcher has in this approach
  3. the inability to generalize the findings from this approach to the larger population
  4. the absence of inter-rater reliability
8.

The benefit of naturalistic observation studies is ________.

  1. the honesty of the data that is collected in a realistic setting
  2. how quick and easy these studies are to perform
  3. the researcher’s capacity to make sure that data is collected as efficiently as possible
  4. the ability to determine cause and effect in this particular approach
9.

Using existing records to try to answer a research question is known as ________.

  1. naturalistic observation
  2. survey research
  3. longitudinal research
  4. archival research
10.

________ involves following a group of research participants for an extended period of time.

  1. archival research
  2. longitudinal research
  3. naturalistic observation
  4. cross-sectional research
11.

A(n) ________ is a list of questions developed by a researcher that can be administered in paper form.

  1. archive
  2. case Study
  3. naturalistic observation
  4. survey
12.

Longitudinal research is complicated by high rates of ________.

  1. deception
  2. observation
  3. attrition
  4. generalization
13.

Height and weight are positively correlated. This means that:

  1. There is no relationship between height and weight.
  2. Usually, the taller someone is, the thinner they are.
  3. Usually, the shorter someone is, the heavier they are.
  4. As height increases, typically weight increases.
14.

Which of the following correlation coefficients indicates the strongest relationship between two variables?

  1. -.90
  2. -.50
  3. +.80
  4. +.25
15.

Which statement best illustrates a negative correlation between the number of hours spent watching TV the week before an exam and the grade on that exam?

  1. Watching too much television leads to poor exam performance.
  2. Smart students watch less television.
  3. Viewing television interferes with a student’s ability to prepare for the upcoming exam.
  4. Students who watch more television perform more poorly on their exams.
16.

The correlation coefficient indicates the weakest relationship when ________.

  1. it is closest to 0
  2. it is closest to -1
  3. it is positive
  4. it is negative
17.

________ means that everyone in the population has the same likelihood of being asked to participate in the study.

  1. operationalizing
  2. placebo effect
  3. random assignment
  4. random sampling
18.

The ________ is controlled by the experimenter, while the ________ represents the information collected and statistically analyzed by the experimenter.

  1. dependent variable; independent variable
  2. independent variable; dependent variable
  3. placebo effect; experimenter bias
  4. experiment bias; placebo effect
19.

Researchers must ________ important concepts in their studies so others would have a clear understanding of exactly how those concepts were defined.

  1. randomly assign
  2. randomly select
  3. operationalize
  4. generalize
20.

Sometimes, researchers will administer a(n) ________ to participants in the control group to control for the effects that participant expectation might have on the experiment.

  1. dependent variable
  2. independent variable
  3. statistical analysis
  4. placebo
21.

________ is to animal research as ________ is to human research.

  1. informed consent; deception
  2. IACUC; IRB
  3. IRB; IACUC
  4. deception; debriefing
22.

Researchers might use ________ when providing participants with the full details of the experiment could skew their responses.

  1. informed consent
  2. deception
  3. ethics
  4. debriefing
23.

A person’s participation in a research project must be ________.

  1. random
  2. rewarded
  3. voluntary
  4. public
24.

Before participating in an experiment, individuals should read and sign the ________ form.

  1. informed consent
  2. debriefing
  3. IRB
  4. ethics
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