In the harmful dysfunction definition of psychological disorders, dysfunction involves ________.
- the inability of an psychological mechanism to perform its function
- the breakdown of social order in one’s community
- communication problems in one’s immediate family
- all the above
Patterns of inner experience and behavior are thought to reflect the presence of a psychological disorder if they ________.
- are highly atypical
- lead to significant distress and impairment in one’s life
- embarrass one’s friends and/or family
- violate the norms of one’s culture
The letters in the abbreviation DSM-5 stand for ________.
- Diseases and Statistics Manual of Medicine
- Diagnosable Standards Manual of Mental Disorders
- Diseases and Symptoms Manual of Mental Disorders
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
A study based on over 9,000 U. S. residents found that the most prevalent disorder was ________.
- major depressive disorder
- social anxiety disorder
- obsessive-compulsive disorder
- specific phobia
The diathesis-stress model presumes that psychopathology results from ________.
- vulnerability and adverse experiences
- biochemical factors
- chemical imbalances and structural abnormalities in the brain
- adverse childhood experiences
Dr. Anastasia believes that major depressive disorder is caused by an over-secretion of cortisol. His view on the cause of major depressive disorder reflects a ________ perspective.
In which of the following anxiety disorders is the person in a continuous state of excessive, pointless worry and apprehension?
- panic disorder
- generalized anxiety disorder
- social anxiety disorder
Which of the following would constitute a safety behavior?
- encountering a phobic stimulus in the company of other people
- avoiding a field where snakes are likely to be present
- avoiding eye contact
- worrying as a distraction from painful memories
Which of the following best illustrates a compulsion?
- mentally counting backward from 1,000
- persistent fear of germs
- thoughts of harming a neighbor
- falsely believing that a spouse has been cheating
Research indicates that the symptoms of OCD ________.
- are similar to the symptoms of panic disorder
- are triggered by low levels of stress hormones
- are related to hyperactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex
- are reduced if people are asked to view photos of stimuli that trigger the symptoms
Symptoms of PTSD include all of the following except ________.
- intrusive thoughts or memories of a traumatic event
- avoidance of things that remind one of a traumatic event
- physical complaints that cannot be explained medically
Which of the following elevates the risk for developing PTSD?
- severity of the trauma
- frequency of the trauma
- high levels of intelligence
- social support
Common symptoms of major depressive disorder include all of the following except ________.
- periods of extreme elation and euphoria
- difficulty concentrating and making decisions
- loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities
- psychomotor agitation and retardation
Suicide rates are ________ among men than among women, and they are ________ during the winter holiday season than during the spring months.
- higher; higher
- lower; lower
- higher; lower
- lower; higher
Clifford falsely believes that the police have planted secret cameras in his home to monitor his every movement. Clifford’s belief is an example of ________.
- a delusion
- a hallucination
- a negative symptom
A study of adoptees whose biological mothers had schizophrenia found that the adoptees were most likely to develop schizophrenia ________.
- if their childhood friends later developed schizophrenia
- if they abused drugs during adolescence
- if they were raised in a disturbed adoptive home environment
- regardless of whether they were raised in a healthy or disturbed home environment
Dissociative amnesia involves ________.
- memory loss following head trauma
- memory loss following stress
- feeling detached from the self
- feeling detached from the world
Dissociative identity disorder mainly involves ________.
- different personalities
People with borderline personality disorder often ________.
- try to be the center of attention
- are shy and withdrawn
- are impulsive and unpredictable
- tend to accomplish goals through cruelty
Antisocial personality disorder is associated with ________.
- emotional deficits
- memory deficits
- parental overprotection
- increased empathy
Which of the following is not a primary characteristic of ADHD?
- short attention span
- difficulty concentrating and distractibility
- restricted and fixated interest
- excessive fidgeting and squirming
One of the primary characteristics of autism spectrum disorder is ________.
- difficulty relating to others
- short attention span
- intense and inappropriate interest in others