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Psychology

Review Questions

PsychologyReview Questions
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction to Psychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 What Is Psychology?
    3. 1.2 History of Psychology
    4. 1.3 Contemporary Psychology
    5. 1.4 Careers in Psychology
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  3. 2 Psychological Research
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Why Is Research Important?
    3. 2.2 Approaches to Research
    4. 2.3 Analyzing Findings
    5. 2.4 Ethics
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  4. 3 Biopsychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Human Genetics
    3. 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System
    4. 3.3 Parts of the Nervous System
    5. 3.4 The Brain and Spinal Cord
    6. 3.5 The Endocrine System
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
    10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. Personal Application Questions
  5. 4 States of Consciousness
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 What Is Consciousness?
    3. 4.2 Sleep and Why We Sleep
    4. 4.3 Stages of Sleep
    5. 4.4 Sleep Problems and Disorders
    6. 4.5 Substance Use and Abuse
    7. 4.6 Other States of Consciousness
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. Personal Application Questions
  6. 5 Sensation and Perception
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Sensation versus Perception
    3. 5.2 Waves and Wavelengths
    4. 5.3 Vision
    5. 5.4 Hearing
    6. 5.5 The Other Senses
    7. 5.6 Gestalt Principles of Perception
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. Personal Application Questions
  7. 6 Learning
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 What Is Learning?
    3. 6.2 Classical Conditioning
    4. 6.3 Operant Conditioning
    5. 6.4 Observational Learning (Modeling)
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  8. 7 Thinking and Intelligence
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 What Is Cognition?
    3. 7.2 Language
    4. 7.3 Problem Solving
    5. 7.4 What Are Intelligence and Creativity?
    6. 7.5 Measures of Intelligence
    7. 7.6 The Source of Intelligence
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. Personal Application Questions
  9. 8 Memory
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 How Memory Functions
    3. 8.2 Parts of the Brain Involved with Memory
    4. 8.3 Problems with Memory
    5. 8.4 Ways to Enhance Memory
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  10. 9 Lifespan Development
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 What Is Lifespan Development?
    3. 9.2 Lifespan Theories
    4. 9.3 Stages of Development
    5. 9.4 Death and Dying
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  11. 10 Emotion and Motivation
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Motivation
    3. 10.2 Hunger and Eating
    4. 10.3 Sexual Behavior
    5. 10.4 Emotion
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  12. 11 Personality
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 What Is Personality?
    3. 11.2 Freud and the Psychodynamic Perspective
    4. 11.3 Neo-Freudians: Adler, Erikson, Jung, and Horney
    5. 11.4 Learning Approaches
    6. 11.5 Humanistic Approaches
    7. 11.6 Biological Approaches
    8. 11.7 Trait Theorists
    9. 11.8 Cultural Understandings of Personality
    10. 11.9 Personality Assessment
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Review Questions
    14. Critical Thinking Questions
    15. Personal Application Questions
  13. 12 Social Psychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 What Is Social Psychology?
    3. 12.2 Self-presentation
    4. 12.3 Attitudes and Persuasion
    5. 12.4 Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
    6. 12.5 Prejudice and Discrimination
    7. 12.6 Aggression
    8. 12.7 Prosocial Behavior
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Review Questions
    12. Critical Thinking Questions
    13. Personal Application Questions
  14. 13 Industrial-Organizational Psychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 What Is Industrial and Organizational Psychology?
    3. 13.2 Industrial Psychology: Selecting and Evaluating Employees
    4. 13.3 Organizational Psychology: The Social Dimension of Work
    5. 13.4 Human Factors Psychology and Workplace Design
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  15. 14 Stress, Lifestyle, and Health
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 What Is Stress?
    3. 14.2 Stressors
    4. 14.3 Stress and Illness
    5. 14.4 Regulation of Stress
    6. 14.5 The Pursuit of Happiness
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
    10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. Personal Application Questions
  16. 15 Psychological Disorders
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 What Are Psychological Disorders?
    3. 15.2 Diagnosing and Classifying Psychological Disorders
    4. 15.3 Perspectives on Psychological Disorders
    5. 15.4 Anxiety Disorders
    6. 15.5 Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
    7. 15.6 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    8. 15.7 Mood Disorders
    9. 15.8 Schizophrenia
    10. 15.9 Dissociative Disorders
    11. 15.10 Personality Disorders
    12. 15.11 Disorders in Childhood
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Review Questions
    16. Critical Thinking Questions
    17. Personal Application Questions
  17. 16 Therapy and Treatment
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Mental Health Treatment: Past and Present
    3. 16.2 Types of Treatment
    4. 16.3 Treatment Modalities
    5. 16.4 Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders: A Special Case
    6. 16.5 The Sociocultural Model and Therapy Utilization
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
    10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. Personal Application Questions
  18. References
  19. Index
1.

Personality is thought to be ________.

  1. short term and easily changed
  2. a pattern of short-term characteristics
  3. unstable and short term
  4. long term, stable and not easily changed
2.

The long-standing traits and patterns that propel individuals to consistently think, feel, and behave in specific ways are known as ________.

  1. psychodynamic
  2. temperament
  3. humors
  4. personality
3.

________ is credited with the first comprehensive theory of personality.

  1. Hippocrates
  2. Gall
  3. Wundt
  4. Freud
4.

An early science that tried to correlate personality with measurements of parts of a person’s skull is known as ________.

  1. phrenology
  2. psychology
  3. physiology
  4. personality psychology
5.

The id operates on the ________ principle.

  1. reality
  2. pleasure
  3. instant gratification
  4. guilt
6.

The ego defense mechanism in which a person who is confronted with anxiety returns to a more immature behavioral stage is called ________.

  1. repression
  2. regression
  3. reaction formation
  4. rationalization
7.

The Oedipus complex occurs in the ________ stage of psychosexual development.

  1. oral
  2. anal
  3. phallic
  4. latency
8.

The universal bank of ideas, images, and concepts that have been passed down through the generations from our ancestors refers to ________.

  1. archetypes
  2. intuition
  3. collective unconscious
  4. personality types
9.

Self-regulation is also known as ________.

  1. self-efficacy
  2. will power
  3. internal locus of control
  4. external locus of control
10.

Your level of confidence in your own abilities is known as ________.

  1. self-efficacy
  2. self-concept
  3. self-control
  4. self-esteem
11.

Jane believes that she got a bad grade on her psychology paper because her professor doesn’t like her. Jane most likely has an _______ locus of control.

  1. internal
  2. external
  3. intrinsic
  4. extrinsic
12.

Self-concept refers to ________.

  1. our level of confidence in our own abilities
  2. all of our thoughts and feelings about ourselves
  3. the belief that we control our own outcomes
  4. the belief that our outcomes are outside of our control
13.

The idea that people’s ideas about themselves should match their actions is called ________.

  1. confluence
  2. conscious
  3. conscientiousness
  4. congruence
14.

The way a person reacts to the world, starting when they are very young, including the person’s activity level is known as ________.

  1. traits
  2. temperament
  3. heritability
  4. personality
15.

Brianna is 18 months old. She cries frequently, is hard to soothe, and wakes frequently during the night. According to Thomas and Chess, she would be considered ________.

  1. an easy baby
  2. a difficult baby
  3. a slow to warm up baby
  4. a colicky baby
16.

According to the findings of the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart, identical twins, whether raised together or apart have ________ personalities.

  1. slightly different
  2. very different
  3. slightly similar
  4. very similar
17.

Temperament refers to ________.

  1. inborn, genetically based personality differences
  2. characteristic ways of behaving
  3. conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openness, and extroversion
  4. degree of introversion-extroversion
18.

According to the Eysencks’ theory, people who score high on neuroticism tend to be ________.

  1. calm
  2. stable
  3. outgoing
  4. anxious
19.

The United States is considered a ________ culture.

  1. collectivistic
  2. individualist
  3. traditional
  4. nontraditional
20.

The concept that people choose to move to places that are compatible with their personalities and needs is known as ________.

  1. selective migration
  2. personal oriented personality
  3. socially oriented personality
  4. individualism
21.

Which of the following is NOT a projective test?

  1. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
  2. Rorschach Inkblot Test
  3. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
  4. Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank (RISB)
22.

A personality assessment in which a person responds to ambiguous stimuli, revealing unconscious feelings, impulses, and desires ________.

  1. self-report inventory
  2. projective test
  3. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
  4. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
23.

Which personality assessment employs a series of true/false questions?

  1. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
  2. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
  3. Rotter Incomplete Sentence Blank (RISB)
  4. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
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