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Psychology 2e

Key Terms

Psychology 2eKey Terms
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction to Psychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 What Is Psychology?
    3. 1.2 History of Psychology
    4. 1.3 Contemporary Psychology
    5. 1.4 Careers in Psychology
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  3. 2 Psychological Research
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Why Is Research Important?
    3. 2.2 Approaches to Research
    4. 2.3 Analyzing Findings
    5. 2.4 Ethics
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  4. 3 Biopsychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Human Genetics
    3. 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System
    4. 3.3 Parts of the Nervous System
    5. 3.4 The Brain and Spinal Cord
    6. 3.5 The Endocrine System
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
    10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. Personal Application Questions
  5. 4 States of Consciousness
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 What Is Consciousness?
    3. 4.2 Sleep and Why We Sleep
    4. 4.3 Stages of Sleep
    5. 4.4 Sleep Problems and Disorders
    6. 4.5 Substance Use and Abuse
    7. 4.6 Other States of Consciousness
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. Personal Application Questions
  6. 5 Sensation and Perception
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Sensation versus Perception
    3. 5.2 Waves and Wavelengths
    4. 5.3 Vision
    5. 5.4 Hearing
    6. 5.5 The Other Senses
    7. 5.6 Gestalt Principles of Perception
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. Personal Application Questions
  7. 6 Learning
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 What Is Learning?
    3. 6.2 Classical Conditioning
    4. 6.3 Operant Conditioning
    5. 6.4 Observational Learning (Modeling)
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  8. 7 Thinking and Intelligence
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 What Is Cognition?
    3. 7.2 Language
    4. 7.3 Problem Solving
    5. 7.4 What Are Intelligence and Creativity?
    6. 7.5 Measures of Intelligence
    7. 7.6 The Source of Intelligence
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. Personal Application Questions
  9. 8 Memory
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 How Memory Functions
    3. 8.2 Parts of the Brain Involved with Memory
    4. 8.3 Problems with Memory
    5. 8.4 Ways to Enhance Memory
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  10. 9 Lifespan Development
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 What Is Lifespan Development?
    3. 9.2 Lifespan Theories
    4. 9.3 Stages of Development
    5. 9.4 Death and Dying
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  11. 10 Emotion and Motivation
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Motivation
    3. 10.2 Hunger and Eating
    4. 10.3 Sexual Behavior
    5. 10.4 Emotion
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  12. 11 Personality
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 What Is Personality?
    3. 11.2 Freud and the Psychodynamic Perspective
    4. 11.3 Neo-Freudians: Adler, Erikson, Jung, and Horney
    5. 11.4 Learning Approaches
    6. 11.5 Humanistic Approaches
    7. 11.6 Biological Approaches
    8. 11.7 Trait Theorists
    9. 11.8 Cultural Understandings of Personality
    10. 11.9 Personality Assessment
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Review Questions
    14. Critical Thinking Questions
    15. Personal Application Questions
  13. 12 Social Psychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 What Is Social Psychology?
    3. 12.2 Self-presentation
    4. 12.3 Attitudes and Persuasion
    5. 12.4 Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
    6. 12.5 Prejudice and Discrimination
    7. 12.6 Aggression
    8. 12.7 Prosocial Behavior
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Review Questions
    12. Critical Thinking Questions
    13. Personal Application Questions
  14. 13 Industrial-Organizational Psychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 What Is Industrial and Organizational Psychology?
    3. 13.2 Industrial Psychology: Selecting and Evaluating Employees
    4. 13.3 Organizational Psychology: The Social Dimension of Work
    5. 13.4 Human Factors Psychology and Workplace Design
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  15. 14 Stress, Lifestyle, and Health
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 What Is Stress?
    3. 14.2 Stressors
    4. 14.3 Stress and Illness
    5. 14.4 Regulation of Stress
    6. 14.5 The Pursuit of Happiness
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
    10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. Personal Application Questions
  16. 15 Psychological Disorders
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 What Are Psychological Disorders?
    3. 15.2 Diagnosing and Classifying Psychological Disorders
    4. 15.3 Perspectives on Psychological Disorders
    5. 15.4 Anxiety Disorders
    6. 15.5 Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
    7. 15.6 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    8. 15.7 Mood Disorders
    9. 15.8 Schizophrenia
    10. 15.9 Dissociative Disorders
    11. 15.10 Disorders in Childhood
    12. 15.11 Personality Disorders
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Review Questions
    16. Critical Thinking Questions
    17. Personal Application Questions
  17. 16 Therapy and Treatment
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Mental Health Treatment: Past and Present
    3. 16.2 Types of Treatment
    4. 16.3 Treatment Modalities
    5. 16.4 Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders: A Special Case
    6. 16.5 The Sociocultural Model and Therapy Utilization
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
    10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. Personal Application Questions
  18. References
  19. Index
accommodation
adjustment of a schema by changing a scheme to accommodate new information different from what was already known
adolescence
period of development that begins at puberty and ends at early adulthood
adrenarche
maturing of the adrenal glands
advance directive
a written legal document that details specific interventions a person wants (see living will)
assimilation
adjustment of a schema by adding information similar to what is already known
attachment
long-standing connection or bond with others
authoritarian parenting style
parents place a high value on conformity and obedience, are often rigid, and express little warmth to the child
authoritative parenting style
parents give children reasonable demands and consistent limits, express warmth and affection, and listen to the child’s point of view
avoidant attachment
characterized by child’s unresponsiveness to parent, does not use the parent as a secure base, and does not care if parent leaves
cognitive development
domain of lifespan development that examines learning, attention, memory, language, thinking, reasoning, and creativity
cognitive empathy
ability to take the perspective of others and to feel concern for others
conception
when a sperm fertilizes an egg and forms a zygote
concrete operational stage
third stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; from about 7 to 11 years old, children can think logically about real (concrete) events
conservation
idea that even if you change the appearance of something, it is still equal in size, volume, or number as long as nothing is added or removed
continuous development
view that development is a cumulative process: gradually improving on existing skills
critical (sensitive) period
time during fetal growth when specific parts or organs develop
developmental milestone
approximate ages at which children reach specific normative events
discontinuous development
view that development takes place in unique stages, which happen at specific times or ages
disorganized attachment
characterized by the child’s odd behavior when faced with the parent; type of attachment seen most often with kids that are abused
do not resuscitate (DNR)
a legal document stating that if a person stops breathing or his or her heart stops, medical personnel such as doctors and nurses are not to take steps to revive or resuscitate the patient
egocentrism
preoperational child’s difficulty in taking the perspective of others
embryo
multi-cellular organism in its early stages of development
emerging adulthood
newly defined period of lifespan development from 18 years old to the mid-20s; young people are taking longer to complete college, get a job, get married, and start a family
fine motor skills
use of muscles in fingers, toes, and eyes to coordinate small actions
formal operational stage
final stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; from age 11 and up, children are able to deal with abstract ideas and hypothetical situations
gonadarche
maturing of the sex glands
gross motor skills
use of large muscle groups to control arms and legs for large body movements
health care proxy
a legal document that appoints a specific person to make medical decisions for a patient if he or she is unable to speak for him/herself
hospice
service that provides a death with dignity; pain management in a humane and comfortable environment; usually outside of a hospital setting
living will
a written legal document that details specific interventions a person wants; may include health care proxy
menarche
beginning of menstrual period; around 12–13 years old
mitosis
process of cell division
motor skills
ability to move our body and manipulate objects
nature
genes and biology
newborn reflexes
inborn automatic response to a particular form of stimulation that all healthy babies are born with
normative approach
study of development using norms, or average ages, when most children reach specific developmental milestones
nurture
environment and culture
object permanence
idea that even if something is out of sight, it still exists
permissive parenting style
parents make few demands and rarely use punishment
physical development
domain of lifespan development that examines growth and changes in the body and brain, the senses, motor skills, and health and wellness
placenta
structure connected to the uterus that provides nourishment and oxygen to the developing baby
prenatal care
medical care during pregnancy that monitors the health of both the mother and the fetus
preoperational stage
second stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; from ages 2 to 7, children learn to use symbols and language but do not understand mental operations and often think illogically
primary sexual characteristics
organs specifically needed for reproduction
psychosexual development
process proposed by Freud in which pleasure-seeking urges focus on different erogenous zones of the body as humans move through five stages of life
psychosocial development
domain of lifespan development that examines emotions, personality, and social relationships
psychosocial development
process proposed by Erikson in which social tasks are mastered as humans move through eight stages of life from infancy to adulthood
resistant attachment
characterized by the child’s tendency to show clingy behavior and rejection of the parent when she attempts to interact with the child
reversibility
principle that objects can be changed, but then returned back to their original form or condition
schema
(plural = schemata) concept (mental model) that is used to help us categorize and interpret information
secondary sexual characteristics
physical signs of sexual maturation that do not directly involve sex organs
secure attachment
characterized by the child using the parent as a secure base from which to explore
secure base
parental presence that gives the infant/toddler a sense of safety as he explores his surroundings
sensorimotor stage
first stage in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; from birth through age 2, a child learns about the world through senses and motor behavior
socioemotional selectivity theory
social support/friendships dwindle in number, but remain as close, if not more close than in earlier years
spermarche
first male ejaculation
stage of moral reasoning
process proposed by Kohlberg; humans move through three stages of moral development
temperament
innate traits that influence how one thinks, behaves, and reacts with the environment
teratogen
biological, chemical, or physical environmental agent that causes damage to the developing embryo or fetus
uninvolved parenting style
parents are indifferent, uninvolved, and sometimes referred to as neglectful; they don’t respond to the child’s needs and make relatively few demands
zygote
structure created when a sperm and egg merge at conception; begins as a single cell and rapidly divides to form the embryo and placenta
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