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Psychology 2e

Key Terms

Psychology 2eKey Terms
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction to Psychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 What Is Psychology?
    3. 1.2 History of Psychology
    4. 1.3 Contemporary Psychology
    5. 1.4 Careers in Psychology
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  3. 2 Psychological Research
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Why Is Research Important?
    3. 2.2 Approaches to Research
    4. 2.3 Analyzing Findings
    5. 2.4 Ethics
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  4. 3 Biopsychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Human Genetics
    3. 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System
    4. 3.3 Parts of the Nervous System
    5. 3.4 The Brain and Spinal Cord
    6. 3.5 The Endocrine System
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
    10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. Personal Application Questions
  5. 4 States of Consciousness
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 What Is Consciousness?
    3. 4.2 Sleep and Why We Sleep
    4. 4.3 Stages of Sleep
    5. 4.4 Sleep Problems and Disorders
    6. 4.5 Substance Use and Abuse
    7. 4.6 Other States of Consciousness
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. Personal Application Questions
  6. 5 Sensation and Perception
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Sensation versus Perception
    3. 5.2 Waves and Wavelengths
    4. 5.3 Vision
    5. 5.4 Hearing
    6. 5.5 The Other Senses
    7. 5.6 Gestalt Principles of Perception
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. Personal Application Questions
  7. 6 Learning
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 What Is Learning?
    3. 6.2 Classical Conditioning
    4. 6.3 Operant Conditioning
    5. 6.4 Observational Learning (Modeling)
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  8. 7 Thinking and Intelligence
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 What Is Cognition?
    3. 7.2 Language
    4. 7.3 Problem Solving
    5. 7.4 What Are Intelligence and Creativity?
    6. 7.5 Measures of Intelligence
    7. 7.6 The Source of Intelligence
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. Personal Application Questions
  9. 8 Memory
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 How Memory Functions
    3. 8.2 Parts of the Brain Involved with Memory
    4. 8.3 Problems with Memory
    5. 8.4 Ways to Enhance Memory
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  10. 9 Lifespan Development
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 What Is Lifespan Development?
    3. 9.2 Lifespan Theories
    4. 9.3 Stages of Development
    5. 9.4 Death and Dying
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  11. 10 Emotion and Motivation
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Motivation
    3. 10.2 Hunger and Eating
    4. 10.3 Sexual Behavior
    5. 10.4 Emotion
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  12. 11 Personality
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 What Is Personality?
    3. 11.2 Freud and the Psychodynamic Perspective
    4. 11.3 Neo-Freudians: Adler, Erikson, Jung, and Horney
    5. 11.4 Learning Approaches
    6. 11.5 Humanistic Approaches
    7. 11.6 Biological Approaches
    8. 11.7 Trait Theorists
    9. 11.8 Cultural Understandings of Personality
    10. 11.9 Personality Assessment
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Review Questions
    14. Critical Thinking Questions
    15. Personal Application Questions
  13. 12 Social Psychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 What Is Social Psychology?
    3. 12.2 Self-presentation
    4. 12.3 Attitudes and Persuasion
    5. 12.4 Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
    6. 12.5 Prejudice and Discrimination
    7. 12.6 Aggression
    8. 12.7 Prosocial Behavior
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Review Questions
    12. Critical Thinking Questions
    13. Personal Application Questions
  14. 13 Industrial-Organizational Psychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 What Is Industrial and Organizational Psychology?
    3. 13.2 Industrial Psychology: Selecting and Evaluating Employees
    4. 13.3 Organizational Psychology: The Social Dimension of Work
    5. 13.4 Human Factors Psychology and Workplace Design
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  15. 14 Stress, Lifestyle, and Health
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 What Is Stress?
    3. 14.2 Stressors
    4. 14.3 Stress and Illness
    5. 14.4 Regulation of Stress
    6. 14.5 The Pursuit of Happiness
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
    10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. Personal Application Questions
  16. 15 Psychological Disorders
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 What Are Psychological Disorders?
    3. 15.2 Diagnosing and Classifying Psychological Disorders
    4. 15.3 Perspectives on Psychological Disorders
    5. 15.4 Anxiety Disorders
    6. 15.5 Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
    7. 15.6 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    8. 15.7 Mood Disorders
    9. 15.8 Schizophrenia
    10. 15.9 Dissociative Disorders
    11. 15.10 Disorders in Childhood
    12. 15.11 Personality Disorders
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Review Questions
    16. Critical Thinking Questions
    17. Personal Application Questions
  17. 16 Therapy and Treatment
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Mental Health Treatment: Past and Present
    3. 16.2 Types of Treatment
    4. 16.3 Treatment Modalities
    5. 16.4 Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders: A Special Case
    6. 16.5 The Sociocultural Model and Therapy Utilization
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
    10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. Personal Application Questions
  18. References
  19. Index
absentmindedness
lapses in memory that are caused by breaks in attention or our focus being somewhere else
acoustic encoding
input of sounds, words, and music
amnesia
loss of long-term memory that occurs as the result of disease, physical trauma, or psychological trauma
anterograde amnesia
loss of memory for events that occur after the brain trauma
arousal theory
strong emotions trigger the formation of strong memories and weaker emotional experiences form weaker memories
Atkinson-Shiffrin model
memory model that states we process information through three systems: sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory
automatic processing
encoding of informational details like time, space, frequency, and the meaning of words
bias
how feelings and view of the world distort memory of past events
blocking
memory error in which you cannot access stored information
chunking
organizing information into manageable bits or chunks
construction
formulation of new memories
declarative memory
type of long-term memory of facts and events we personally experience
effortful processing
encoding of information that takes effort and attention
elaborative rehearsal
thinking about the meaning of new information and its relation to knowledge already stored in your memory
encoding
input of information into the memory system
engram
physical trace of memory
episodic memory
type of declarative memory that contains information about events we have personally experienced, also known as autobiographical memory
equipotentiality hypothesis
some parts of the brain can take over for damaged parts in forming and storing memories
explicit memory
memories we consciously try to remember and recall
false memory syndrome
recall of false autobiographical memories
flashbulb memory
exceptionally clear recollection of an important event
forgetting
loss of information from long-term memory
implicit memory
memories that are not part of our consciousness
levels of processing
information that is thought of more deeply becomes more meaningful and thus better committed to memory
long-term memory (LTM)
continuous storage of information
memory
set of processes used to encode, store, and retrieve information over different periods of time
memory-enhancing strategy
technique to help make sure information goes from short-term memory to long-term memory
misattribution
memory error in which you confuse the source of your information
misinformation effect paradigm
after exposure to additional and possibly inaccurate information, a person may misremember the original event
mnemonic device
memory aids that help organize information for encoding
persistence
failure of the memory system that involves the involuntary recall of unwanted memories, particularly unpleasant ones
proactive interference
old information hinders the recall of newly learned information
procedural memory
type of long-term memory for making skilled actions, such as how to brush your teeth, how to drive a car, and how to swim
recall
accessing information without cues
recognition
identifying previously learned information after encountering it again, usually in response to a cue
reconstruction
process of bringing up old memories that might be distorted by new information
rehearsal
repetition of information to be remembered
relearning
learning information that was previously learned
retrieval
act of getting information out of long-term memory storage and back into conscious awareness
retroactive interference
information learned more recently hinders the recall of older information
retrograde amnesia
loss of memory for events that occurred prior to brain trauma
self-reference effect
tendency for an individual to have better memory for information that relates to oneself in comparison to material that has less personal relevance
semantic encoding
input of words and their meaning
semantic memory
type of declarative memory about words, concepts, and language-based knowledge and facts
sensory memory
storage of brief sensory events, such as sights, sounds, and tastes
short-term memory (STM)
holds about seven bits of information before it is forgotten or stored, as well as information that has been retrieved and is being used
storage
creation of a permanent record of information
suggestibility
effects of misinformation from external sources that leads to the creation of false memories
transience
memory error in which unused memories fade with the passage of time
visual encoding
input of images
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