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Psychology 2e

Review Questions

Psychology 2eReview Questions
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction to Psychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 What Is Psychology?
    3. 1.2 History of Psychology
    4. 1.3 Contemporary Psychology
    5. 1.4 Careers in Psychology
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  3. 2 Psychological Research
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Why Is Research Important?
    3. 2.2 Approaches to Research
    4. 2.3 Analyzing Findings
    5. 2.4 Ethics
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  4. 3 Biopsychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Human Genetics
    3. 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System
    4. 3.3 Parts of the Nervous System
    5. 3.4 The Brain and Spinal Cord
    6. 3.5 The Endocrine System
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
    10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. Personal Application Questions
  5. 4 States of Consciousness
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 What Is Consciousness?
    3. 4.2 Sleep and Why We Sleep
    4. 4.3 Stages of Sleep
    5. 4.4 Sleep Problems and Disorders
    6. 4.5 Substance Use and Abuse
    7. 4.6 Other States of Consciousness
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. Personal Application Questions
  6. 5 Sensation and Perception
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Sensation versus Perception
    3. 5.2 Waves and Wavelengths
    4. 5.3 Vision
    5. 5.4 Hearing
    6. 5.5 The Other Senses
    7. 5.6 Gestalt Principles of Perception
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. Personal Application Questions
  7. 6 Learning
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 What Is Learning?
    3. 6.2 Classical Conditioning
    4. 6.3 Operant Conditioning
    5. 6.4 Observational Learning (Modeling)
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  8. 7 Thinking and Intelligence
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 What Is Cognition?
    3. 7.2 Language
    4. 7.3 Problem Solving
    5. 7.4 What Are Intelligence and Creativity?
    6. 7.5 Measures of Intelligence
    7. 7.6 The Source of Intelligence
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. Personal Application Questions
  9. 8 Memory
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 How Memory Functions
    3. 8.2 Parts of the Brain Involved with Memory
    4. 8.3 Problems with Memory
    5. 8.4 Ways to Enhance Memory
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  10. 9 Lifespan Development
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 What Is Lifespan Development?
    3. 9.2 Lifespan Theories
    4. 9.3 Stages of Development
    5. 9.4 Death and Dying
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  11. 10 Emotion and Motivation
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Motivation
    3. 10.2 Hunger and Eating
    4. 10.3 Sexual Behavior
    5. 10.4 Emotion
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  12. 11 Personality
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 What Is Personality?
    3. 11.2 Freud and the Psychodynamic Perspective
    4. 11.3 Neo-Freudians: Adler, Erikson, Jung, and Horney
    5. 11.4 Learning Approaches
    6. 11.5 Humanistic Approaches
    7. 11.6 Biological Approaches
    8. 11.7 Trait Theorists
    9. 11.8 Cultural Understandings of Personality
    10. 11.9 Personality Assessment
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Review Questions
    14. Critical Thinking Questions
    15. Personal Application Questions
  13. 12 Social Psychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 What Is Social Psychology?
    3. 12.2 Self-presentation
    4. 12.3 Attitudes and Persuasion
    5. 12.4 Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
    6. 12.5 Prejudice and Discrimination
    7. 12.6 Aggression
    8. 12.7 Prosocial Behavior
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Review Questions
    12. Critical Thinking Questions
    13. Personal Application Questions
  14. 13 Industrial-Organizational Psychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 What Is Industrial and Organizational Psychology?
    3. 13.2 Industrial Psychology: Selecting and Evaluating Employees
    4. 13.3 Organizational Psychology: The Social Dimension of Work
    5. 13.4 Human Factors Psychology and Workplace Design
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  15. 14 Stress, Lifestyle, and Health
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 What Is Stress?
    3. 14.2 Stressors
    4. 14.3 Stress and Illness
    5. 14.4 Regulation of Stress
    6. 14.5 The Pursuit of Happiness
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
    10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. Personal Application Questions
  16. 15 Psychological Disorders
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 What Are Psychological Disorders?
    3. 15.2 Diagnosing and Classifying Psychological Disorders
    4. 15.3 Perspectives on Psychological Disorders
    5. 15.4 Anxiety Disorders
    6. 15.5 Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
    7. 15.6 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    8. 15.7 Mood Disorders
    9. 15.8 Schizophrenia
    10. 15.9 Dissociative Disorders
    11. 15.10 Disorders in Childhood
    12. 15.11 Personality Disorders
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Review Questions
    16. Critical Thinking Questions
    17. Personal Application Questions
  17. 16 Therapy and Treatment
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Mental Health Treatment: Past and Present
    3. 16.2 Types of Treatment
    4. 16.3 Treatment Modalities
    5. 16.4 Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders: A Special Case
    6. 16.5 The Sociocultural Model and Therapy Utilization
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
    10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. Personal Application Questions
  18. References
  19. Index
1.

In the harmful dysfunction definition of psychological disorders, dysfunction involves ________.

  1. the inability of an psychological mechanism to perform its function
  2. the breakdown of social order in one’s community
  3. communication problems in one’s immediate family
  4. all the above
2.

Patterns of inner experience and behavior are thought to reflect the presence of a psychological disorder if they ________.

  1. are highly atypical
  2. lead to significant distress and impairment in one’s life
  3. embarrass one’s friends and/or family
  4. violate the norms of one’s culture
3.

The letters in the abbreviation DSM-5 stand for ________.

  1. Diseases and Statistics Manual of Medicine
  2. Diagnosable Standards Manual of Mental Disorders
  3. Diseases and Symptoms Manual of Mental Disorders
  4. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
4.

A study based on over 9,000 U. S. residents found that the most prevalent disorder was ________.

  1. major depressive disorder
  2. social anxiety disorder
  3. obsessive-compulsive disorder
  4. specific phobia
5.

The diathesis-stress model presumes that psychopathology results from ________.

  1. vulnerability and adverse experiences
  2. biochemical factors
  3. chemical imbalances and structural abnormalities in the brain
  4. adverse childhood experiences
6.

Dr. Anastasia believes that major depressive disorder is caused by an over-secretion of cortisol. His view on the cause of major depressive disorder reflects a ________ perspective.

  1. psychological
  2. supernatural
  3. biological
  4. diathesis-stress
7.

In which of the following anxiety disorders is the person in a continuous state of excessive, pointless worry and apprehension?

  1. panic disorder
  2. generalized anxiety disorder
  3. agoraphobia
  4. social anxiety disorder
8.

Which of the following would constitute a safety behavior?

  1. encountering a phobic stimulus in the company of other people
  2. avoiding a field where snakes are likely to be present
  3. avoiding eye contact
  4. worrying as a distraction from painful memories
9.

Which of the following best illustrates a compulsion?

  1. mentally counting backward from 1,000
  2. persistent fear of germs
  3. thoughts of harming a neighbor
  4. falsely believing that a spouse has been cheating
10.

Research indicates that the symptoms of OCD ________.

  1. are similar to the symptoms of panic disorder
  2. are triggered by low levels of stress hormones
  3. are related to hyperactivity in the orbitofrontal cortex
  4. are reduced if people are asked to view photos of stimuli that trigger the symptoms
11.

Symptoms of PTSD include all of the following except ________.

  1. intrusive thoughts or memories of a traumatic event
  2. avoidance of things that remind one of a traumatic event
  3. jumpiness
  4. physical complaints that cannot be explained medically
12.

Which of the following elevates the risk for developing PTSD?

  1. severity of the trauma
  2. frequency of the trauma
  3. high levels of intelligence
  4. social support
13.

Common symptoms of major depressive disorder include all of the following except ________.

  1. periods of extreme elation and euphoria
  2. difficulty concentrating and making decisions
  3. loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities
  4. psychomotor agitation and retardation
14.

Suicide rates are ________ among men than among women, and they are ________ during the winter holiday season than during the spring months.

  1. higher; higher
  2. lower; lower
  3. higher; lower
  4. lower; higher
15.

Clifford falsely believes that the police have planted secret cameras in his home to monitor his every movement. Clifford’s belief is an example of ________.

  1. a delusion
  2. a hallucination
  3. tangentiality
  4. a negative symptom
16.

A study of adoptees whose biological mothers had schizophrenia found that the adoptees were most likely to develop schizophrenia ________.

  1. if their childhood friends later developed schizophrenia
  2. if they abused drugs during adolescence
  3. if they were raised in a disturbed adoptive home environment
  4. regardless of whether they were raised in a healthy or disturbed home environment
17.

Dissociative amnesia involves ________.

  1. memory loss following head trauma
  2. memory loss following stress
  3. feeling detached from the self
  4. feeling detached from the world
18.

Dissociative identity disorder mainly involves ________.

  1. depersonalization
  2. derealization
  3. schizophrenia
  4. different personalities
19.

Which of the following is not a primary characteristic of ADHD?

  1. short attention span
  2. difficulty concentrating and distractibility
  3. restricted and fixated interest
  4. excessive fidgeting and squirming
20.

One of the primary characteristics of autism spectrum disorder is ________.

  1. bed-wetting
  2. difficulty relating to others
  3. short attention span
  4. intense and inappropriate interest in others
21.

People with borderline personality disorder often ________.

  1. try to be the center of attention
  2. are shy and withdrawn
  3. are impulsive and unpredictable
  4. tend to accomplish goals through cruelty
22.

Antisocial personality disorder is associated with ________.

  1. emotional deficits
  2. memory deficits
  3. parental overprotection
  4. increased empathy
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