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Psychology 2e

Review Questions

Psychology 2eReview Questions
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction to Psychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 What Is Psychology?
    3. 1.2 History of Psychology
    4. 1.3 Contemporary Psychology
    5. 1.4 Careers in Psychology
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  3. 2 Psychological Research
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Why Is Research Important?
    3. 2.2 Approaches to Research
    4. 2.3 Analyzing Findings
    5. 2.4 Ethics
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  4. 3 Biopsychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Human Genetics
    3. 3.2 Cells of the Nervous System
    4. 3.3 Parts of the Nervous System
    5. 3.4 The Brain and Spinal Cord
    6. 3.5 The Endocrine System
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
    10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. Personal Application Questions
  5. 4 States of Consciousness
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 What Is Consciousness?
    3. 4.2 Sleep and Why We Sleep
    4. 4.3 Stages of Sleep
    5. 4.4 Sleep Problems and Disorders
    6. 4.5 Substance Use and Abuse
    7. 4.6 Other States of Consciousness
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. Personal Application Questions
  6. 5 Sensation and Perception
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Sensation versus Perception
    3. 5.2 Waves and Wavelengths
    4. 5.3 Vision
    5. 5.4 Hearing
    6. 5.5 The Other Senses
    7. 5.6 Gestalt Principles of Perception
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. Personal Application Questions
  7. 6 Learning
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 What Is Learning?
    3. 6.2 Classical Conditioning
    4. 6.3 Operant Conditioning
    5. 6.4 Observational Learning (Modeling)
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  8. 7 Thinking and Intelligence
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 What Is Cognition?
    3. 7.2 Language
    4. 7.3 Problem Solving
    5. 7.4 What Are Intelligence and Creativity?
    6. 7.5 Measures of Intelligence
    7. 7.6 The Source of Intelligence
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Review Questions
    11. Critical Thinking Questions
    12. Personal Application Questions
  9. 8 Memory
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 How Memory Functions
    3. 8.2 Parts of the Brain Involved with Memory
    4. 8.3 Problems with Memory
    5. 8.4 Ways to Enhance Memory
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  10. 9 Lifespan Development
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 What Is Lifespan Development?
    3. 9.2 Lifespan Theories
    4. 9.3 Stages of Development
    5. 9.4 Death and Dying
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  11. 10 Emotion and Motivation
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Motivation
    3. 10.2 Hunger and Eating
    4. 10.3 Sexual Behavior
    5. 10.4 Emotion
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  12. 11 Personality
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 What Is Personality?
    3. 11.2 Freud and the Psychodynamic Perspective
    4. 11.3 Neo-Freudians: Adler, Erikson, Jung, and Horney
    5. 11.4 Learning Approaches
    6. 11.5 Humanistic Approaches
    7. 11.6 Biological Approaches
    8. 11.7 Trait Theorists
    9. 11.8 Cultural Understandings of Personality
    10. 11.9 Personality Assessment
    11. Key Terms
    12. Summary
    13. Review Questions
    14. Critical Thinking Questions
    15. Personal Application Questions
  13. 12 Social Psychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 What Is Social Psychology?
    3. 12.2 Self-presentation
    4. 12.3 Attitudes and Persuasion
    5. 12.4 Conformity, Compliance, and Obedience
    6. 12.5 Prejudice and Discrimination
    7. 12.6 Aggression
    8. 12.7 Prosocial Behavior
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Review Questions
    12. Critical Thinking Questions
    13. Personal Application Questions
  14. 13 Industrial-Organizational Psychology
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 What Is Industrial and Organizational Psychology?
    3. 13.2 Industrial Psychology: Selecting and Evaluating Employees
    4. 13.3 Organizational Psychology: The Social Dimension of Work
    5. 13.4 Human Factors Psychology and Workplace Design
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Review Questions
    9. Critical Thinking Questions
    10. Personal Application Questions
  15. 14 Stress, Lifestyle, and Health
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 What Is Stress?
    3. 14.2 Stressors
    4. 14.3 Stress and Illness
    5. 14.4 Regulation of Stress
    6. 14.5 The Pursuit of Happiness
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
    10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. Personal Application Questions
  16. 15 Psychological Disorders
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 What Are Psychological Disorders?
    3. 15.2 Diagnosing and Classifying Psychological Disorders
    4. 15.3 Perspectives on Psychological Disorders
    5. 15.4 Anxiety Disorders
    6. 15.5 Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders
    7. 15.6 Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    8. 15.7 Mood Disorders
    9. 15.8 Schizophrenia
    10. 15.9 Dissociative Disorders
    11. 15.10 Disorders in Childhood
    12. 15.11 Personality Disorders
    13. Key Terms
    14. Summary
    15. Review Questions
    16. Critical Thinking Questions
    17. Personal Application Questions
  17. 16 Therapy and Treatment
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Mental Health Treatment: Past and Present
    3. 16.2 Types of Treatment
    4. 16.3 Treatment Modalities
    5. 16.4 Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders: A Special Case
    6. 16.5 The Sociocultural Model and Therapy Utilization
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Review Questions
    10. Critical Thinking Questions
    11. Personal Application Questions
  18. References
  19. Index
1.

As a field, social psychology focuses on ________ in predicting human behavior.

  1. personality traits
  2. genetic predispositions
  3. biological forces
  4. situational factors
2.

Making internal attributions for your successes and making external attributions for your failures is an example of ________.

  1. actor-observer bias
  2. fundamental attribution error
  3. self-serving bias
  4. just-world hypothesis
3.

Collectivistic cultures are to ________ as individualistic cultures are to ________.

  1. dispositional; situational
  2. situational; dispositional
  3. autonomy; group harmony
  4. just-world hypothesis; self-serving bias
4.

According to the actor-observer bias, we have more information about ________.

  1. situational influences on behavior
  2. influences on our own behavior
  3. influences on others’ behavior
  4. dispositional influences on behavior
5.

A(n) ________ is a set of group expectations for appropriate thoughts and behaviors of its members.

  1. social role
  2. social norm
  3. script
  4. attribution
6.

On his first day of soccer practice, Jose suits up in a t-shirt, shorts, and cleats and runs out to the field to join his teammates. Jose’s behavior is reflective of ________.

  1. a script
  2. social influence
  3. good athletic behavior
  4. normative behavior
7.

When it comes to buying clothes, teenagers often follow social norms; this is likely motivated by ________.

  1. following parents’ rules
  2. saving money
  3. fitting in
  4. looking good
8.

In the Stanford prison experiment, even the lead researcher succumbed to his role as a prison supervisor. This is an example of the power of ________ influencing behavior.

  1. scripts
  2. social norms
  3. conformity
  4. social roles
9.

Attitudes describe our ________ of people, objects, and ideas.

  1. treatment
  2. evaluations
  3. cognitions
  4. knowledge
10.

Cognitive dissonance causes discomfort because it disrupts our sense of ________.

  1. dependency
  2. unpredictability
  3. consistency
  4. power
11.

In order for the central route to persuasion to be effective, the audience must be ________ and ________.

  1. analytical; motivated
  2. attentive; happy
  3. intelligent; unemotional
  4. gullible; distracted
12.

Examples of cues used in peripheral route persuasion include all of the following except ________.

  1. celebrity endorsement
  2. positive emotions
  3. attractive models
  4. factual information
13.

In the Asch experiment, participants conformed due to ________ social influence.

  1. informational
  2. normative
  3. inspirational
  4. persuasive
14.

Under what conditions will informational social influence be more likely?

  1. when individuals want to fit in
  2. when the answer is unclear
  3. when the group has expertise
  4. both b and c
15.

Social loafing occurs when ________.

  1. individual performance cannot be evaluated
  2. the task is easy
  3. both a and b
  4. none of the above
16.

If group members modify their opinions to align with a perceived group consensus, then ________ has occurred.

  1. group cohesion
  2. social facilitation
  3. groupthink
  4. social loafing
17.

Prejudice is to ________ as discrimination is to ________.

  1. feelings; behavior
  2. thoughts; feelings
  3. feelings; thoughts
  4. behavior; feelings
18.

Which of the following is not a type of prejudice?

  1. homophobia
  2. racism
  3. sexism
  4. individualism
19.

________ occurs when the out-group is blamed for the in-group’s frustration.

  1. stereotyping
  2. in-group bias
  3. scapegoating
  4. ageism
20.

When we seek out information that supports our stereotypes we are engaged in ________.

  1. scapegoating
  2. confirmation bias
  3. self-fulfilling prophecy
  4. in-group bias
21.

Typically, bullying from boys is to ________ as bullying from girls is to ________.

  1. emotional harm; physical harm
  2. physical harm; emotional harm
  3. psychological harm; physical harm
  4. social exclusion; verbal taunting
22.

Which of the following adolescents is least likely to be targeted for bullying?

  1. a child with a physical disability
  2. a transgender adolescent
  3. an emotionally sensitive boy
  4. the captain of the football team
23.

The bystander effect likely occurs due to ________.

  1. desensitization to violence
  2. people not noticing the emergency
  3. diffusion of responsibility
  4. emotional insensitivity
24.

Altruism is a form of prosocial behavior that is motivated by ________.

  1. feeling good about oneself
  2. selfless helping of others
  3. earning a reward
  4. showing bravery to bystanders
25.

After moving to a new apartment building, research suggests that Sam will be most likely to become friends with ________.

  1. his next door neighbor
  2. someone who lives three floors up in the apartment building
  3. someone from across the street
  4. his new postal delivery person
26.

What trait do both men and women tend to look for in a romantic partner?

  1. sense of humor
  2. social skills
  3. leadership potential
  4. physical attractiveness
27.

According to the triangular theory of love, what type of love is defined by passion and intimacy but no commitment?

  1. consummate love
  2. empty love
  3. romantic love
  4. liking
28.

According to social exchange theory, humans want to maximize the ________ and minimize the ________ in relationships.

  1. intimacy; commitment
  2. benefits; costs
  3. costs; benefits
  4. passion; intimacy
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