Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo

Ahad, A. A., Sanchez-Gonzalez, M., & Junquera, P. (2023). Understanding and addressing mental health stigma across cultures for improving psychiatric care: A narrative review. Cureus, 15(5), e39549.

Alqahtani, F., Winn, A., & Orji, R. (2021). Co-designing a mobile app to improve mental health and well-being: Focus group study. JMIR Formative Research, 5(2), e18172.

Altmiller, G., & Pepe, L. H. (2022). Influence of technology in supporting quality and safety in nursing education. The Nursing Clinics of North America, 57(4), 551–562.

American Nurses Association. (2022). The scope of nursing informatics practice.

American Psychological Association. (2021). Understanding psychotherapy and how it works.

American Psychological Association. (2022). Mental health.

Anders, R. L. (2021). Engaging nurses in health policy in the era of COVID-19. Nursing Forum, 56(1), 89–94.

Andersson, G., Carlbring, P., Titov, N., & Lindefors, N. (2019). Internet interventions for adults with anxiety and mood disorders: A narrative umbrella review of recent meta-analyses. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie, 64(7), 465–470.

Aoki, Y., Yaju, Y., Utsumi, T., Sanyaolu, L., Storm, M., Takaesu, Y., Watanabe, K., Watanabe, N., Duncan, E., & Edwards, A. G. (2022). Shared decision-making interventions for people with mental health conditions. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 11(11), CD007297.

Basso, J. C., & Suzuki, W. A. (2017). The effects of acute exercise on mood, cognition, neurophysiology, and neurochemical pathways: A review. Brain Plasticity, 2(2), 127–152.

Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law. (2024). When there’s a crisis, call a peer: How people with lived experience make mental health crisis services more effective.

Bellamy, C. D., Klee, A. S., Cornejo, X., Guy, K., Costa, M., & Davidson, L. (2020). Peer support for people with psychiatric illness. Psychotic Disorders, 538–546.

Benning, T. B. (2016). No such thing as mental illness? Critical reflections on the major ideas and legacy of Thomas Szasz. BJPsych Bulletin, 40(6), 292–295.

Bhattacharya, S., & Hofmann, S. G. (2023). Mindfulness-based interventions for anxiety and depression. Clinics in Integrated Care, 16, 100138.

Booth, R. G., Strudwick, G., McBride, S., O’Connor, S., & Solano López, A. L. (2021). How the nursing profession should adapt for a digital future. The BMJ, 373, n1190.

Borelle, C. (2017). « C’est uniquement social ». Sur la production d’un dualisme social/psychiatrique en sciences sociales et dans le travail ordinaire de la psychiatrie. Politix, 117, 201–222.

Borenstein, J. (2020, August). Stigma, prejudice and discrimination against people with mental illness. American Psychiatric Association.

Böttger, S. J., Förstner, B. R., Szalek, L., Koller-Schlaud, K., Rapp, M. A., & Tschorn, M. (2023). Mood and anxiety disorders within the Research Domain Criteria framework of Positive and Negative Valence Systems: A scoping review. Front. Hum. Neurosci., 17.

Bredström, A. (2017). Culture and context in mental health diagnosing: Scrutinizing the DSM-5 revision. Journal of Medical Humanities, 40(3), 347–363.

Butcher, C. J., & Hussain, W. (2022). Digital healthcare: The future. Future Healthcare Journal, 9(2), 113–117.

Campanozzi, L. L., Gibelli, F., Bailo, P., Nittari, G., Sirignano, A., & Ricci, G. (2023). The role of digital literacy in achieving health equity in the third millennium society: A literature review. Frontiers in Public Health, 11.

Castillo, E. G., Ijadi-Maghsoodi, R., Shadravan, S., Moore, E., Mensah, M. O., III, Docherty, M., Aguilera Nunez, M. G., Barcelo, N., Goodsmith, N., Halpin, L. E., Morton, I., Mango, J., Montero, A. E., Rahmanian Koushkaki, S., Bromley, E., Chung, B., Jones, F., Gabrielian, S., Gelberg, L., Greenberg, J. M., … Wells, K. B. (2019). Community interventions to promote mental health and social equity. Current Psychiatry Reports, 21(5), 35.

Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (2019). Trauma-informed care: A sociocultural perspective. Trauma-Informed Care in Behavioral Health Sciences. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US).

Chieze, M., Clavien, C., Kaiser, S., & Hurst, S. (2021). Coercive measures in psychiatry: A review of ethical arguments. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12, 790886.

Citizens Commission on Human Rights Nonprofit Mental Health Watchdog. (2023).

Cook, S. C., Schwartz, A. C., & Kaslow, N. J. (2017). Evidence-based psychotherapy: Advantages and challenges. Neurotherapeutics: The Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, 14(3), 537–545.

Cooper, R. (2017). Where’s the problem? Considering Laing and Esterson’s account of schizophrenia, social models of disability, and extended mental disorder. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, 38(4), 295–305.

Cosgrove, L., Krimsky, S., Wheeler, E. E., Kaitz, J., Greenspan, S. B., & DiPentima, N. L. (2014). Tripartite conflicts of interest and high stakes patent extensions in the DSM-5. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 83(2), 106–113.

Dalal, P. K. (2020). Consent in psychiatry—concept, application & implications. The Indian Journal of Medical Research, 151(1), 6–9.

Davidson, L. (2016). The recovery movement: Implications for mental health care and enabling people to participate fully in life. Health Affairs, 35(6), 1091–1097.

de Bruin, E. I., van der Zwan, J. E., & Bögels, S. M. (2016). A RCT comparing daily mindfulness meditations, biofeedback exercises, and daily physical exercise on attention control, executive functioning, mindful awareness, self-compassion, and worrying in stressed young adults. Mindfulness, 7(5), 1182–1192.

Desai, N. G. (2005). Antipsychiatry: Meeting the challenge. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 47(4), 185–187.

Dong, Q., Liu, T., Liu, R., Yang, H., & Liu, C. (2023). Effectiveness of digital health literacy interventions in older adults: Single-arm meta-analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 25, e48166.

Drescher, J. (2015). Out of DSM: Depathologizing homosexuality. Behavioral Sciences, 5(4), 565–575.

Edgar, S., & Connaughton, J. (2021). Using mental health first aid training to improve the mental health literacy of physiotherapy students. Physiotherapy Canada. Physiotherapie Canada, 73(2), 188–193.

Edgcomb, J. B. (2021). Leveraging clinical informatics to improve mental health care. Yale School of Medicine.

Edgcomb, J., Coverdale, J., Aggarwal, R., Guerrero, A. P. S., & Brenner, A. M. (2022). Applications of clinical informatics to child mental health care: A call to action to bridge practice and training. Academic Psychiatry: The Journal of the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training and the Association for Academic Psychiatry, 46(1), 11–17.

Ee, C., Lake, J., Firth, J., Hargraves, F., de Manincor, M., Meade, T., Marx, W., & Sarris, J. (2020). An integrative collaborative care model for people with mental illness and physical comorbidities. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 14(1).

Evans-Lacko, S., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Al-Hamzawi, A., Alonso, J., Benjet, C., Bruffaerts, R., Chiu, W. T., Florescu, S., de Girolamo, G., Gureje, O., Haro, J. M., He, Y., Karam, E. G., Kawakami, N., Lee, S., Lund, C., Kovess-Masfety, V., Levinson, D., . . . Thornicroft, G. (2018). Socio-economic variations in the mental health treatment gap for people with anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders: Results from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys. Psychological Medicine, 48(9), 1560–1571.

Federal Communications Commission. (2021, December 15). Affordable Connectivity Program. Federal Communications Commission.

Fergusson, E., Reed-Purvis, S., & Foulkes, L. (2023). Overmedicalization of young people’s distress is undermining and disempowering families. Nature Mental Health, 1(6), 381–382.

Fertalova, T., & Ondriova, I. (2019). Non-pharmacological treatment of Alzheimer’s. IntechOpen.

Firth, J., Gangwisch, J. E., Borisini, A., Wootton, R. E., & Mayer, E. A. (2020). Food and mood: How do diet and nutrition affect mental wellbeing? BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 369, m2382.

Firth, J., Torous, J., Nicholas, J., Carney, R., Pratap, A., Rosenbaum, S., & Sarris, J. (2017). The efficacy of smartphone-based mental health interventions for depressive symptoms: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA), 16(3), 287–298.

Fitzpatrick, K. K., Darcy, A., & Vierhile, M. (2017). Delivering cognitive behavior therapy to young adults with symptoms of depression and anxiety using a fully automated conversational agent (woebot): A randomized controlled trial. JMIR Mental Health, 4(2), e19.

Flaubert, J. L., Menestrel, S. L., Williams, D. R., & Wakefield, M. K. (2021). The role of nurses in improving health care access and quality. The future of nursing 2020–2030: Charting a path to achieve health equity. National Academies Press.

Fortuna, K. L., Solomon, P., & Rivera, J. (2022). An update of peer support/peer provided services underlying processes, benefits, and critical ingredients. Psychiatric Quarterly.

Fritscher, L. (2023, January 17). Advantages and disadvantages of the diagnostic statistical manual. Verywell Mind.

Fulone, I., Barreto, J. O. M., Barberato-Filho, S., Bergamaschi, C. C., Silva, M. T., & Lopes, L. C. (2021). Improving care for deinstitutionalized people with mental disorders: Experiences of the use of knowledge translation tools. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12, 575108.

Gajarawala, S. N., & Pelkowski, J. N. (2021). Telehealth benefits and barriers. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners: JNP, 17(2), 218–221.

Gopal, D. P., Chetty, U., O’Donnell, P., Gajria, C., & Blackadder-Weinstein, J. (2021). Implicit bias in healthcare: Clinical practice, research and decision making. Future Healthcare Journal, 8(1), 40–48.

Grajek, M., Krupa-Kotara, K., Białek-Dratwa, A., Sobczyk, K., Grot, M., Kowalski, O., & Staśkiewicz, W. (2022). Nutrition and mental health: A review of current knowledge about the impact of diet on mental health. Frontiers in Nutrition, 9, 943998.

Haque, M. D. R., & Rubya, S. (2023). An overview of chatbot-based mobile mental health apps: Insights from app description and user reviews. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 11, e44838.

Hartley, S., Raphael, J., Lovell, K., & Berry, K. (2020). Effective nurse-client relationships in mental health care: A systematic review of interventions to improve the therapeutic alliance. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 102, 103490.

Higgs, R. N. (2020). Reconceptualizing psychosis: The hearing voices movement and social approaches to health. Health and Human Rights, 22(1), 133–144.

Hollis, C., Falconer, C. J., Martin, J. L., Whittington, C., Stockton, S., Glazebrook, C., & Davies, E. B. (2017). Annual research review: Digital health interventions for children and young people with mental health problems - A systematic and meta-review. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 58(4), 474–503.

Hurley, J., Lakeman, R., Linsley, P., Ramsay, M., & Mckenna-Lawson, S. (2022). Utilizing the mental health nursing workforce: A scoping review of mental health nursing clinical roles and identities. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 31(4), 796–822.

Ivanov, I., & Schwartz, J. M. (2021). Why psychotropic drugs don’t cure mental illness-But should they? Frontiers in Psychiatry, 12, 579566.

Johnson, S., Dalton-Locke, C., Baker, J., Hanlon, C., Salisbury, T. T., Fossey, M., Newbigging, K., Carr, S. E., Hensel, J., Carrà, G., Hepp, U., Caneo, C., Needle, J. J., & Lloyd-Evans, B. (2022). Acute psychiatric care: Approaches to increasing the range of services and improving access and quality of care. World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA), 21(2), 220–236.

Kariotis, T. C., Prictor, M., Chang, S., & Gray, K. (2022). Impact of electronic health records on information practices in mental health contexts: Scoping review. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 24(5), e30405.

Kealeboga, K. M., Manyedi, M. E., & Moloko-Phiri, S. (2023). Nurses’ perceptions on how recovery-oriented mental health care can be developed and implemented. Nursing Research and Practice, 2023, 4504420.

Kent, S. A., & Manca, T. A. (2014). A war over mental health professionalism: Scientology versus psychiatry. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 17(1), 1–23.

Kirkbride, J. B., Anglin, D. M., Colman, I., Dykxhoorn, J., Jones, P. B., Patalay, P., Pitman, A., Soneson, E., Steare, T., Wright, T., & Griffiths, S. L. (2024). The social determinants of mental health and disorder: Evidence, prevention and recommendations. World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA), 23(1), 58–90.

Kritsotaki, D. (2021). Changing psychiatry or changing society? The motion for the rights of the “mentally ill” in Greece, 1980–1990. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 76(4), 440–461.

Kwame, A., & Petrucka, P. M. (2021). A literature-based study of client-centered care and communication in nurse-client interactions: Barriers, facilitators, and the way forward. BMC Nursing, 20(1), 1–10.

Lake, J. (2022). Complementary, alternative, & integrative approaches in mental health care.

Laplaud, N., Perrochon, A., Gallou-Guyot, M., Moens, M., Goudman, L., David, R., Rigoard, P., & Billot, M. (2023). Management of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms by yoga: An overview. BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies, 23(1), 258.

Laranjeira, C., Carvalho, D., Valentim, O., Moutinho, L., Morgado, T., Tomás, C., Gomes, J., & Querido, A. (2023). Therapeutic adherence of people with mental disorders: An evolutionary concept analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 20(5), 3869.

Maar, M. A., Yeates, K., Perkins, N., Boesch, L., Hua-Stewart, D., Liu, P., Sleeth, J., & Tobe, S. W. (2017). A framework for the study of complex mHealth interventions in diverse cultural settings. JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 5(4), e47.

Mahindru, A., Patil, P., & Agrawal, V. (2023). Role of physical activity on mental health and well-being: A review. Cureus, 15(1), e33475.

Malhotra, A., & Baker, J. (2022, December 13). Group therapy. PubMed; StatPearls Publishing.

Malik, M., Kumari, S., & Manalai, P. (2020). Treatment nonadherence: An epidemic hidden in plain sight. Psychiatric Times, 37(3), 25–26.

Markowitz, J. C., Milrod, B., Heckman, T. G., Bergman, M., Amsalem, D., Zalman, H., Ballas, T., & Neria, Y. (2020). Psychotherapy at a distance. American Journal of Psychiatry, 178(3), appi.ajp.2020.2.

Matsuda, M., & Kohno, A. (2021). Development of a blended learning system for nurses to learn the basics of psychoeducation for clients with mental disorders. BMC Nursing, 20(1), 1–10.

Mayo Clinic. (2019). Biofeedback.

Mental Health America. (2023). Mental Health America’s online communities.

Mongelli, F., Georgakopoulos, P., & Pato, M. T. (2020). Challenges and opportunities to meet the mental health needs of underserved and disenfranchised populations in the United States. Focus (American Psychiatric Publishing), 18(1), 16–24.

Montejo, A. L., Montejo, L., & Baldwin, D. S. (2018). The impact of severe mental disorders and psychotropic medications on sexual health and its implications for clinical management. World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA), 17(1), 3–11.

Morland, L., Wells, S., & Rosen, C. (2023). PTSD and telemental health. U.S. Department of Veteran Affairs.

Mumtaz, H., Riaz, M. H., Wajid, H., Saqib, M., Zeeshan, M. H., Khan, S. E., Chauhan, Y. R., Sohail, H., & Vohra, L. I. (2023). Current challenges and potential solutions to the use of digital health technologies in evidence generation: a narrative review. Frontiers in Digital Health, 5.

Murray, H. (2014). “My place was set at the terrible feast”: The meanings of the “anti-psychiatry” movement and responses in the United States, 1970s–1990s. The Journal of American Culture, 37(1), 37–51.

Naslund, J. A., Aschbrenner, K. A., Araya, R., Marsch, L. A., Unützer, J., Patel, V., & Bartels, S. J. (2017). Digital technology for treating and preventing mental disorders in low-income and middle-income countries: A narrative review of the literature. The Lancet Psychiatry, 4(6), 486–500.

Naslund, J. A., Aschbrenner, K. A., Marsch, L. A., & Bartels, S. J. (2016). The future of mental health care: Peer-to-peer support and social media. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 25(2), 113–122.

National Alliance on Mental Illness. (2023). NAMI HelpLine.

Nawaz, R. F., Reen, G., Bloodworth, N., Maughan, D., & Vincent, C. (2021). Interventions to reduce self-harm on in-client wards: Systematic review. BJPsych Open, 7(3), e80.

Ng, T. P., Nyunt, M. S. Z., Feng, L., Kumar, R., Fones, C. S. L., & Ko, S. M. (2020). Collaborative care for primary care treatment of late-life depression in Singapore: Randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 35(10), 1171–1180.

Nuri, N., Sarker, M., Ahmed, H., Hossain, M., Beiersmann, C., & Jahn, A. (2018). Pathways to care of clients with mental health problems in Bangladesh. Int J Ment Health Syst, 12, 39.

Paterick, T. E., Patel, N., Tajik, A. J., & Chandrasekaran, K. (2017). Improving health outcomes through client education and partnerships with clients. Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center), 30(1), 112–113.

Phelan, S. M., Salinas, M., Pankey, T., Cummings, G., Allen, J. P., Waniger, A., Miller, N. E., Lebow, J., Dovidio, J. F., van Ryn, M., & Doubeni, C. A. (2023). Client and health care professional perspectives on stigma in integrated behavioral health: Barriers and recommendations. Annals of Family Medicine, 21(Suppl 2), S56–S60.

Saeed, S. A., & Masters, R. M. (2021). Disparities in health care and the digital divide. Current Psychiatry Reports, 23(9), 61.

Saha, G. (2021). Advocacy in mental health. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 63(6), 523–526.

Scales, K., Zimmerman, S., & Miller, S. J. (2018). Evidence-based nonpharmacological practices to address behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. The Gerontologist, 58(suppl_1), S88–S102.

Scott, A. J., Webb, T. L., Martyn-St James, M., Rowse, G., & Weich, S. (2021). Improving sleep quality leads to better mental health: A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 60, 101556.

Semahegn, A., Torpey, K., Manu, A., Assefa, N., Tesfaye, G., & Ankomah, A. (2020). Psychotropic medication non-adherence and its associated factors among clients with major psychiatric disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Systematic Reviews, 9(1), 17.

Semrau, M., Alem, A., Ayuso-Mateos, J. L., Chisholm, D., Gureje, O., Hanlon, C., Jordans, M., Kigozi, F., Lund, C., Petersen, I., Shidhaye, R., & Thornicroft, G. (2019). Strengthening mental health systems in low- and middle-income countries: Recommendations from the Emerald programme. BJPsych Open, 5(5), e73.

Shalaby, R. A. H., & Agyapong, V. I. O. (2020). Peer support in mental health: Literature review. JMIR Mental Health, 7(6), e15572.

Shukla, A., Choudhari, S. G., Gaidhane, A. M., & Quazi Syed, Z. (2022). Role of art therapy in the promotion of mental health: A critical review. Cureus, 14(8), e28026.

Singh, V., Kumar, A., & Gupta, S. (2022). Mental health prevention and promotion-A narrative review. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 13, 898009.

Slemon, A., Jenkins, E., & Bungay, V. (2017). Safety in psychiatric inpatient care: The impact of risk management culture on mental health nursing practice. Nursing Inquiry, 24(4), e12199.

Stein, D. J., Shoptaw, S. J., Vigo, D. V., Lund, C., Cuijpers, P., Bantjes, J., Sartorius, N., & Maj, M. (2022). Psychiatric diagnosis and treatment in the 21st century: Paradigm shifts versus incremental integration. World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA), 21(3), 393–414.

Strand, M., Eng, L. S., & Gammon, D. (2020). Combining online and offline peer support groups in community mental health care settings: A qualitative study of service users’ experiences. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 14(1).

Stubbe, D. E. (2020). Practicing cultural competence and cultural humility in the care of diverse clients. Focus (American Psychiatric Publishing), 18(1), 49–51.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2021). Evidence-based resource guide series: Telehealth for the treatment of serious mental illness and substance use disorders.

Subu, M. A., Wati, D. F., Netrida, N., Priscilla, V., Dias, J. M., Abraham, M. S., Slewa-Younan, S., & Al-Yateem, N. (2021). Types of stigma experienced by clients with mental illness and mental health nurses in Indonesia: A qualitative content analysis. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 15(1), 1–12.

Sunkel, C., & Sartor, C. (2022). Perspectives: Involving persons with lived experience of mental health conditions in service delivery, development and leadership. BJPsych Bulletin, 46(3), 160–164.

Tanoue, H., Yoshinaga, N., Kato, S., Naono-Nagatomo, K., Ishida, Y., & Shiraishi, Y. (2018). Nurse-led group cognitive behavioral therapy for major depressive disorder among adults in Japan: A preliminary single-group study. International Journal of Nursing Sciences, 5(3), 218–222.

Telles-Correia, D., Saraiva, S., & Gonçalves, J. (2018). Mental disorder-The need for an accurate definition. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9, 64.

Thornicroft, G., Mehta, N., Clement, S., Evans-Lacko, S., Doherty, M., Rose, D., Koschorke, M., Shidhaye, R., O’Reilly, C., & Henderson, C. (2016). Evidence for effective interventions to reduce mental-health-related stigma and discrimination. The Lancet, 387(10023), 1123–1132.

Turcios, Y. (2023, March 20). Digital access: A super determinant of health.

Vaidyam, A. N., Wisniewski, H., Halamka, J. D., Kashavan, M. S., & Torous, J. B. (2019). Chatbots and conversational agents in mental health: A review of the psychiatric landscape. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie, 64(7), 456–464.

Velligan, D. I., Sajatovic, M., Hatch, A., Kramata, P., & Docherty, J. P. (2017). Why do psychiatric clients stop antipsychotic medication? A systematic review of reasons for nonadherence to medication in clients with serious mental illness. Patient Preference and Adherence, 11, 449–468.

Vos, J. F. J., Boonstra, A., Kooistra, A., Seelen, M., & van Offenbeek, M. (2020). The influence of electronic health record use on collaboration among medical specialties. BMC Health Services Research, 20(1), 676.

Werlen, L., Puhan, M. A., Landolt, M. A., & Mohler-Kuo, M. (2020). Mind the treatment gap: The prevalence of common mental disorder symptoms, risky substance use and service utilization among young Swiss adults. BMC Public Health, 20(1).

Witteveen, A. B., Young, S., Cuijpers, P., Ayuso-Mateos, J. L., Barbui, C., Bertolini, F., Cabello, M., Cadorin, C., Downes, N., Franzoi, D., Gasior, M., John, A., Melchior, M., McDaid, D., Palantza, C., Purgato, M., Van der Waerden, J., Wang, S., & Sijbrandij, M. (2022). Remote mental health care interventions during the COVID-19 pandemic: An umbrella review. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 159, 104226.

Wong, K. P., Bonn, G., Tam, C. L., & Wong, C. P. (2018). Preferences for online and/or face-to-face counseling among university students in Malaysia. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 64.

Yu, B., Funk, M., Hu, J., Wang, Q., & Feijs, L. (2018). Biofeedback for everyday stress management: A systematic review. Frontiers in ICT, 5.


This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at
Citation information

© Jun 25, 2024 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.