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adaptive functioning
person’s ability to conduct their activities of daily living through communication and independent living
Asperger syndrome
disorder that has been reclassified as under ASD and has no requirement for onset by age three or language delay, and no criteria for communication or cognitive deficit
attention-deficit disorder (ADD)
disorder involving distractibility and difficulties with mental focus and working memory
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
disorder commonly diagnosed in childhood that involves difficulty paying attention, difficulty controlling impulsive behaviors, or excessive activity
autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
developmental disorder of the brain that causes impairment in behavior, communication, interaction with others, and learning
child-onset fluency disorder
chronic stuttering that persists into adulthood
childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD)
rare, severe form of autism with a late onset
communication disorder
persistent difficulty with language and/or speech
conceptual domain
includes a person’s abilities in language, reading, writing, math, reasoning, knowledge, and memory
conduct disorder (CD)
diagnosed when a child shows an ongoing pattern of aggression toward others with serious violations of rules and social norms at home, at school, and with peers
disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD)
disorder in which children experience chronic, intense angry outbursts
Down syndrome
intellectual disability where a baby is born with an extra chromosome 21
difficulty with calculation and completion of arithmetic problems
having distorted writing even with instruction and intact motor ability
most common learning disability, affects a person’s ability to read as it causes problems with phonological processing
emotional dysregulation
inability to control emotions, can result in mood swings, angry outbursts, and losing temper
fetal alcohol syndrome
most serious of the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, and often features problems with the central nervous system, facial features, growth, learning disabilities, vision or hearing problems, and difficulty in school
Fragile X syndrome
genetic disorder that involves the Fragile X Messenger Ribonucleoprotein 1 (FMR1) gene responsible for producing a protein that helps brain development
describes the behavior associated with ADHD that involves interrupting others, grabbing things from other people, or speaking at inappropriate times
describes the behavior associated with ADHD that involves difficulty for individual to organize or finish a task, pay attention to details, or follow instructions or conversations
intellectual developmental disorder
child is not meeting age-appropriate developmental guidelines for speech, language, socialization, motor skills, and behavior
intellectual disability
preferred term for intellectual functioning that falls below an IQ of 70 and starts before age eighteen
intellectual functioning
way a person learns and problem-solves
language disorder
difficulty learning spoken, written, or signed language
learning disorder
occurs when a person has a difficult time in an area of learning, but it is not related to motivation or IQ level, emotional problems, cultural differences, or level of disadvantage
motor disorders
group of disorders that begin in the developmental years and cause delays in children reaching motor milestones
oppositional defiant disorder (ODD)
behavioral condition in which the child has symptoms of being uncooperative, defiant, and may be hostile toward people in authority
pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)
disorder reclassified as under ASD and was formerly used when the child did not meet all the criteria for autism
practical domain
considers the individual’s ability to act independently in their personal care, job role, school and work tasks, and money management
Prader-Willi syndrome
abnormality in the fifteenth chromosome that results in a neurobiological disorder that affects metabolism and behavior
repetitive and stereotyped behaviors
unusual behaviors, such as hand flapping, body rocking, repeating words, and placing toys in the same order
Rett syndrome
disorder that affects mostly girls and often displays symptoms that are similar to autism
social communication disorder
disorder in which a person has difficulty using verbal and nonverbal communication within a social situation
social domain
considers the individual’s ability to make friends and have relationships with others
speech sound disorder
inability to articulate words or sounds in order to communicate with others
tic disorder
disorder that causes a person to uncontrollably twitch, move, or make sounds
Tourette syndrome
disorder that is diagnosed with the presence of two or more motor tics and at least one vocal tic that have lasted for at least a year, began before age eighteen, and are not due to another medical condition

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