Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo

Agarwal, V., Nischal, A., Praharaj, S. K., Menon, V., & Kar, S. K. (2020, January). Clinical practice guideline: Psychotherapies for somatoform disorders. Indian J Psychiatry, 62(Suppl 2), S263–S271.

American Psychiatric Association. (2022). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed., text rev.).

Barranco, R., Caputo, F., Ricci, P., Gratteri, S., Frigiolini, F. M. E., Rocca, G., & Ventura, F. (2021). An unusual case of functional neurological disorders and psychogenic coma following physical assault: Clinical and medico-legal considerations. Journal of Forensic Science and Medicine, 7(1), 36.

Canna, M., & Seligman, R. (2020). Dealing with the unknown. Functional neurological disorder (FND) and the conversion of cultural meaning. Social Science & Medicine, 246.

Carnahan, K. T., & Jha, A. (2023, January 2). Factitious disorder. StatPearls [Internet].

Cleveland Clinic. (2020). Factitious disorders.

Cleveland Clinic. (2021). Factitious disorder imposed on another (FDIA).

D’Souza, R. S., & Hooten, W. M. (2023, March 13). Somatic syndrome disorders. StatPearls.

Dunphy, L., Penna, M., & EL-Kafsi, J. (2019). Somatic symptom disorder: A diagnostic dilemma. BMJ Case Reports, 12(11).

French, J. H., & Hameed, S. (2023, July 16). Illness anxiety disorder. StatPearls [Internet].

Keatley, E., & Molton, I. (2022). A shift in approach: Assessment and treatment of adults with functional neurological disorder. J Health Serv Psychol, 48(2),79–87.

Leventhal, H. (2001). In Illness behavior and care seeking, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences (pp. 7185–7190).

Mayo (2019). Fictitious disorder.

NHS Inform. (2024). Functional neurological disorder. Scottish Government.

Patterson, E. (2022). Illness anxiety disorder: Signs, symptoms, & treatments. Choosing Therapy.

Peeling, J. L., & Muzio, M. R. (2023, May 8). Conversion disorder. National Center for Biotechnology Information.

Quality and Safety Education for Nurses. (2022). QSEN Institute Competencies.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2019, June). Impact of the DSM-IV to DSM-5 Changes on the National Survey on Drug Use and Health [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US); Table 3.32, DSM-IV to DSM-5 Illness Anxiety Disorder Comparison.

Vaziri, A., Esmaeilinasab, M., Hamdieh, M., & Farahani, H. (2019). Cultural obstacles in emotion expression among patients with somatic symptom disorder (SSD) in an Iranian sample: A qualitative study. International Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 13(1), 8–13.

Weber, B., Gokarakonda, S. B., & Doyle, M. Q. (2023, July 4). Munchausen syndrome. StatPearls [Internet].

Zaky, E. A. (2015). Factitious disorder imposed on another (Munchausen syndrome by proxy), a potentially lethal form of child abuse. J Child Adolesc Behav, 3, e106.


This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at
Citation information

© Jun 12, 2024 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.