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Figure 17.1 The etiology of psychological and mental health disorders can be multifaceted, ranging from genetic and biological to environmental; often, specific causes are a combination of the types of factors or remain a mystery. (credit: “National Nurses Week: Capt. Stephanie Smiddy” by Staff Sgt. Shane Hughes/Air Force Medical Service, Public Domain)

Stress is commonly understood as a physical, mental, or emotional strain or tension that results from challenges or adverse situations. It can emerge from external pressures, such as work demands or interpersonal conflicts, and internal pressures, such as personal expectations or chronic health conditions. While short-term stress can be beneficial for alertness, motivation, and performance, chronic stress, when left unmanaged, can negatively affect physical and psychological well-being (American Psychological Association, 2020).

Anxiety, OCD, and trauma-stressor disorders are a group of mental health conditions prevalent in society and can significantly affect individuals’ lives. These disorders can cause distress, dysfunction, and disability in individuals, making it important for nurses to understand their underlying causes, symptoms, and treatment options. The causes of anxiety, OCD, and trauma-stressor disorders are complex and multifactorial, involving genetic, environmental, and biological factors. Effective treatments for these disorders include medication, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes.


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