Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo

Two people looking at computers with brain images with an imaging equipment room in the background.
Figure 14.1 The etiology of psychological and mental health disorders can be multifaceted, ranging from genetic and biological to environmental; often, specific causes are a combination of the types of factors or remain a mystery. (credit: “National Nurses Week: Capt. Stephanie Smiddy” by Staff Sgt. Shane Hughes/Air Force Medical Service, Public Domain)

This chapter highlights neurocognitive changes that occur in adults. Neurocognitive disorders affect the way the brain functions. Neurocognitive disorders include conditions such as mild neurocognitive disorder, delirium, and dementias (now known as major neurocognitive disorder in the DSM-5). Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, and multiple sclerosis are well-known neurocognitive disorders. These disorders can have a genetic component and can be associated with environmental factors. They can also be caused by an underlying medical condition, such as a traumatic brain injury or stroke, metabolic conditions, and even infections. Continued research is important for discovering new treatments, medications, and preventive strategies for neurocognitive disorders.


This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at
Citation information

© Jun 12, 2024 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.