Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo

1. “Company Timeline,” Starbucks Stories & News, Starbucks, January 24, 2019,
2. “’Tis the #PSL Season Again!,” Starbucks Stories & News, Starbucks, August 27, 2021,
3. Ash Read, “Everything You Need to Know about Global Marketing Strategy,” Ecommerce Marketing Blog, Sumo, updated January 21, 2020,
4. Ashley Turner, “Why There Are Almost No Starbucks in Australia,” CNBC, July 25, 2018,
5. Turner, “No Starbucks in Australia.”
6. Starbucks Arrives in Milan: Roastery Honors Italian Espresso Culture, Design and Craft,” Starbucks Stories & News, Starbucks, September 5, 2018,
7. “Number 2: We Are Global,” Nike, Inc.: A Growth Company, Nike, n.d.,
8. “Automotive Industry,” China: Country Commercial Guide, International Trade Administration, January 4, 2022,
9. “Chinese Car Market: How Automakers Compete for First Place,” Daxue Consulting, August 2, 2020,
10. Wikipedia, s.v. “Wuling Hongguang Mini EV,” last modified August 28, 2022, 02:48,
11. “Ford China Sells 125,000 Vehicles in First Quarter, Accelerating Localization and Delivery of Ford+ Growth Plan,” Ford Media Center, Ford Motor Company, April 14, 2022,
12. “Amazon Creates 25,000 Permanent Roles and Keeps Growing in Poland,” Amazon News,,
13. Will Kenton, “What Is Business Risk? Definition, Factors, and Examples,” Investopedia, Dotdash Meredith, updated March 25, 2022,
14. Jordan Mendoza, “What Happens to the Super Bowl 56 Championship Gear Made for the Cincinnati Bengals?,” USA Today, February 14, 2022,
15. “Do Not Get Sold on Drug Advertising,” Harvard Health Publishing, Harvard Medical School, February 14, 2017,
16. APA Dictionary of Psychology, s.v. “cultural sensitivity,” accessed August 30, 2022,
17. “This Cinco de Mayo, Don’t Be a Jerk: 6 Valuable Lessons from Culturally Insensitive Ad Campaigns of Recent Months,” Ideas, Thunderfoot, May 5, 2017,
18. Niamh O, “10 Brands and Businesses That Got Their Marketing Horribly Wrong,” TopMBA, QS Quacquarelli Symonds, updated April 15, 2021,
19. “Guide to Gift Giving around the World,” GlobeSmart Blog, GlobeSmart, last modified April 7, 2020,
20. “Business Etiquette in Japan,” The City of Yokohama Europe Representative Office, last modified August 17, 2020,
21. Douglas Quackenbos et al., “Does Your Company Have What It Takes to Go Global?,” Harvard Business Review, April 11, 2016,
22. Quackenbos et al., “Does Your Company?”
23. Module 1: Introduction to Infrastructure Economics, NPTEL, accessed February 3, 2022,
24. CNNWire, “Toilet Paper Roll Slimming Down? Products May Continue to Shrink in Size, Quantity amid Inflation,” ABC11 Raleigh-Durham, NC, ABC, March 9, 2022,
25. “What You Should Know before Going Global,” Small Business Management in the 21st Century (Washington, DC: Saylor Academy, 2012),
26. Saylor Academy, “What You Should Know.”
27. “USD to GBP Historical Exchange Rates,” OFX, USForex, last modified June 30, 2022,
28. Financial Management Service, Treasury Reporting Rates of Exchange 1997 (Washington, DC: US Department of the Treasury, 1997),
29. Mădălina Radu, “Political Stability: A Condition for Sustainable Growth in Romania?,” Procedia Economics and Finance 30 (2015): 751–757,
30. Bill Chappell, “McDonald’s Is Leaving Russia, after More Than 30 Years,” NPR, May 16, 2022,
31. “Trade Regulations of Japan,” Guide and Resources, HKTDC Research, May 10, 2022,
32. “Seychelles Joins the World Trade Organization and Reduces Tariffs,” Simplified Trade Solutions, April 7, 2015,
33. Simplified Trade Solutions, “Seychelles.”
34. “Effect of Import Quotas,” Glossary Terms, Economics Help, accessed August 30, 2022,
35. “Embargoed and Sanctioned Countries,” Office of Trade Compliance, University of Pittsburgh, last modified March 8, 2021,
36. “10 Major Regional Trading Blocs in the World,” Export Genius Blog, Export Genius, March 30, 2018,
37. Andrew Seale, “Seven Epic Cases of Companies That Failed Internationally,” Touchpoint by Firmex, Firmex,
38. Saul McLeod, “Stereotypes,” Simply Psychology, Simply Scholar, updated 2017,
39. Zoe Kelland and Erica Sánchez, “Debunking 15 Common Myths and Misconceptions about Africa,” Global Citizen, Global Poverty Project, January 12, 2018,
40. Benjamin Elisha Sawe, “Where Do Giraffes Live?,” WorldAtlas, Valnet, July 25, 2018,
41. Yun Li, “More Than 50 Companies Reportedly Pull Production out of China due to Trade War,” CNBC, July 18, 2019,
42. Abhijeet Pratap, “Effect of Demographic Factors on Consumer Behavior: Age, Sex, Income and Education,” Notesmatic, updated December 27, 2021,
43. Anna Engelbertink and Schevaa van Hullebusch, “The Effects of Education and Income on Consumers’ Motivation to Read Online Hotel Reviews,” Research in Hospitality Management 2, no. 1–2 (2013): 57–61,
44. Jennifer Long, “Technology in Uganda Sees Profitable Growth,” Borgen Magazine, August 17, 2020,
45. Moses Owori, “Poverty in Uganda: National and Regional Data and Trends,” Resources, Development Initiatives, October 2, 2020,
46. Laura Gray, “Does Uganda Have More Mobile Phones Than Light Bulbs?,” BBC News, BBC, March 25, 2016,
47. Geoffrey Mutabazi, “Ugandan Startup Finds Innovative Solutions for Mobile Charging,” interview by Paul Ndiho, Africa 54 Interviews, VOA News, Voice of America, April 27, 2022,
48. “Hong Kong Disneyland Faces Tough Competition,” NBC News, NBC Universal, September 10, 2006,
49. Ashley Crossman, “The Importance Customs in Society,” ThoughtCo., Dotdash Meredith, updated November 5, 2019,
50. “A Brief History of the Spanish Siesta,” All about Barcelona Tourism (blog), BCN Exclusive Private Tours, July 29, 2018,
51. John Spacey, “21 Examples of Cultural Symbols,” Simplicable Guide, Simplicable, July 5, 2020,
52. Spacey, “21 Examples.”
53. Thomas Metcalf, “Marketing Blunders & Global Culture,” Small Business,, last modified November 21, 2017,
54. “11 Foods That Have Different Names in the UK and the US,” Bayswater, Eurocentres, September 13, 2016,
55. “English Idioms,” Resources for Learning English, EF Education First, accessed August 30, 2022,
56. “10 Fascinating Idioms in Different Languages,” TakeLessons Blog, TakeLessons, May 13, 2016,
57. Sian Cain, “Lizzo Removes ‘Harmful’ Ableist Slur from New Song Grrrls after Criticism,” Guardian, June 13, 2022,
58. Laura Dixon, “Northampton’s Traditional Shoemaking Revival,” Wall Street Journal, March 6, 2014,
59. Adam Hayes, “Franchise,” Investopedia, Dotdash Meredith, updated September 4, 2021,
60. “Franchising Overview,” Corporate, McDonald’s, accessed August 30, 2022,
61. Lxi Lisa Goetz, “The Cost of Buying a McDonald’s Franchise (MCD),” Investopedia, Dotdash Meredith, updated June 7, 2021,
62. “Details,” Fitness Franchise: Dance Workout Instructor, Jazzercize, accessed August 30, 2022,
63. Sally Lauckner, “Franchising vs. Licensing: What’s the Difference?,” Small Business, NerdWallet, October 22, 2020,
64. Wex, s.v. “joint venture,” updated July 2021,
65. Kacey Culliney, “Kellogg Strikes Cereal and Snack Joint Venture with Chinese Monopoly Wilmar,” BakeryandSnacks, William Reed, updated September 25, 2012,
66. “Strategic Alliance: Meaning, Examples and Types,” Harappa Blogs, Harappa Learning, December 20, 2021,
67. “Tesla Said Readying Its China Factory for Even Greater Volumes,” Bloomberg, June 23, 2022,
68. Tommy Unger, “Amazon Corporate Headquarters,” Maps and Buildings for Amazon & Microsoft,
69. Dan Alaimo, “Amazon Dominates International Marketplace Reach,” Retail Dive, Industry Dive, September 10, 2018,
70. Shahil Usman, “McDonald’s & Its Transnational Business Strategy,” LinkedIn, April 4, 2020,
71. “Global Marketing Strategy Guide: Tips and Examples,” Translator’s Blog, Tomedes, January 27, 2021,
72. Tomedes, “Global Marketing Strategy Guide.”
73. “Nike Zoom Running Shoes,” Nike AU, Nike, accessed August 30, 2022,
74. “High Intensity Interval Training,”, Nike, accessed August 30, 2022,
75. “McDonald’s to Beef Up in India with Meatless Menu,” CBS News, CBS Interactive, September 5, 2012,
76. “Access to Electricity (% of Population) – Uganda,” World Bank Open Data, World Bank Group, accessed August 30, 2022,
77. “Top 10 Most Expensive Countries to Buy Cars,” ezFEED (blog), ezAUTO.MY, September 14, 2020,
78. “Whole Channel View,” The Definition, accessed August 30, 2022,
79. Brian Beckcom, “Captain Phillips and the Truth about What Happened,” Blog & News, VB Attorneys, October 30, 2017,
80. Wikipedia, s.v. “List of Coca-Cola slogans,” last modified July 7, 2022, 05:41,
81. “Why Do Companies Outsource? Lessons Learned and Outsourcing Examples,” Our Blog, NIX United, August 24, 2020,
82. Helen Davidson, “Xinjiang: More Than Half a Million Forced to Pick Cotton, Report Suggests,” Guardian, December 15, 2020,
83. Christopher Blattman and Stefan Dercon, “Everything We Knew about Sweatshops Was Wrong,” New York Times, April 27, 2017,
84. Erika C. Collins, “Global Diversity and International Employment,” in The Employment Law Review, ed. Erika C. Collins, 11th ed. (London: Law Business Research, 2020), 19–28.
85. Tina Yazdi, “5 Reasons Why International Success and Diversity Are Inseparable,” Amplitude, November 16, 2017,
86. Gillian Oakenfull, “Marketing with Cultural Intelligence for Growth and Good,” Forbes, April 7, 2021,
87. “Child Labor and the Law,” Child Labor Facts, GoodWeave, accessed August 30, 2022,
88. “Foreign Corrupt Practices Act,” Fraud Section (FRD), US Department of Justice, last modified February 3, 2017,
89. “Past World’s Most Ethical Companies,” World’s Most Ethical Companies, Ethisphere, last modified February 18, 2022,
90. Nikola Gemeš, “44 of the World’s Most Ethical Companies (Updated 2022),” GreenCitizen Blog, GreenCitizen, April 10, 2022,
91. “Kao and Costco Test the Introduction of Foldable Containers as Reusable Packing Material,” News Release, Kao, July 28, 2022,
92. Gemeš, “World’s Most Ethical Companies.”
93. Timmy Global Health,; “Timmy Global Health Responds to COVID-19,” Timmy Global Health Blog,; “Wrestling at Its Finest—21st Annual Timmy Takedown,”, September 22, 2022,;
Order a print copy

As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases.


This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at
Citation information

© Jan 9, 2024 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.