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Principles of Marketing

4.5 Ethical Issues in B2B Marketing

Principles of Marketing4.5 Ethical Issues in B2B Marketing

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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. Setting the Stage
    1. 1 Unit Introduction
    2. 1 Marketing and Customer Value
      1. In the Spotlight
      2. 1.1 Marketing and the Marketing Process
      3. 1.2 The Marketing Mix and the 4Ps of Marketing
      4. 1.3 Factors Comprising and Affecting the Marketing Environment
      5. 1.4 Evolution of the Marketing Concept
      6. 1.5 Determining Consumer Needs and Wants
      7. 1.6 Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
      8. 1.7 Ethical Marketing
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Key Terms
      11. Applied Marketing Knowledge: Discussion Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Exercises
      13. Building Your Personal Brand
      14. What Do Marketers Do?
      15. Marketing Plan Exercise
      16. Closing Company Case
      17. References
    3. 2 Strategic Planning in Marketing
      1. In the Spotlight
      2. 2.1 Developing a Strategic Plan
      3. 2.2 The Role of Marketing in the Strategic Planning Process
      4. 2.3 Purpose and Structure of the Marketing Plan
      5. 2.4 Marketing Plan Progress Using Metrics
      6. 2.5 Ethical Issues in Developing a Marketing Strategy
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Key Terms
      9. Applied Marketing Knowledge: Discussion Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Exercises
      11. Building Your Personal Brand
      12. What Do Marketers Do?
      13. Marketing Plan Exercise
      14. Closing Company Case
      15. References
  3. Understanding the Marketplace
    1. 2 Unit Introduction
    2. 3 Consumer Markets and Purchasing Behavior
      1. In the Spotlight
      2. 3.1 Understanding Consumer Markets and Buying Behavior
      3. 3.2 Factors That Influence Consumer Buying Behavior
      4. 3.3 The Consumer Purchasing Decision Process
      5. 3.4 Ethical Issues in Consumer Buying Behavior
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Key Terms
      8. Applied Marketing Knowledge: Discussion Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Exercises
      10. Building Your Personal Brand
      11. What Do Marketers Do?
      12. Closing Company Case
      13. References
    3. 4 Business Markets and Purchasing Behavior
      1. In the Spotlight
      2. 4.1 The Business-to-Business (B2B) Market
      3. 4.2 Buyers and Buying Situations in a B2B Market
      4. 4.3 Major Influences on B2B Buyer Behavior
      5. 4.4 Stages in the B2B Buying Process
      6. 4.5 Ethical Issues in B2B Marketing
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Key Terms
      9. Applied Marketing Knowledge: Discussion Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Exercises
      11. Building Your Personal Brand
      12. What Do Marketers Do?
      13. Closing Company Case
      14. References
    4. 5 Market Segmentation, Targeting, and Positioning
      1. In the Spotlight
      2. 5.1 Market Segmentation and Consumer Markets
      3. 5.2 Segmentation of B2B Markets
      4. 5.3 Segmentation of International Markets
      5. 5.4 Essential Factors in Effective Market Segmentation
      6. 5.5 Selecting Target Markets
      7. 5.6 Product Positioning
      8. 5.7 Ethical Concerns and Target Marketing
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Key Terms
      11. Applied Marketing Knowledge: Discussion Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Exercises
      13. Building Your Personal Brand
      14. What Do Marketers Do?
      15. Marketing Plan Exercise
      16. Closing Company Case
      17. References
    5. 6 Marketing Research and Market Intelligence
      1. In the Spotlight
      2. 6.1 Marketing Research and Big Data
      3. 6.2 Sources of Marketing Information
      4. 6.3 Steps in a Successful Marketing Research Plan
      5. 6.4 Ethical Issues in Marketing Research
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Key Terms
      8. Applied Marketing Knowledge: Discussion Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Exercises
      10. Building Your Personal Brand
      11. What Do Marketers Do?
      12. Marketing Plan Exercise
      13. Closing Company Case
      14. References
    6. 7 Marketing in a Global Environment
      1. In the Spotlight
      2. 7.1 The Global Market and Advantages of International Trade
      3. 7.2 Assessment of Global Markets for Opportunities
      4. 7.3 Entering the Global Arena
      5. 7.4 Marketing in a Global Environment
      6. 7.5 Ethical Issues in the Global Marketplace
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Key Terms
      9. Applied Marketing Knowledge: Discussion Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Exercises
      11. Building Your Personal Brand
      12. What Do Marketers Do?
      13. Closing Company Case
      14. References
    7. 8 Marketing in a Diverse Marketplace
      1. In the Spotlight
      2. 8.1 Strategic Marketing: Standardization versus Adaptation
      3. 8.2 Diversity and Inclusion Marketing
      4. 8.3 Multicultural Marketing
      5. 8.4 Marketing to Hispanic, Black, and Asian Consumers
      6. 8.5 Marketing to Sociodemographic Groups
      7. 8.6 Ethical Issues in Diversity Marketing
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Key Terms
      10. Applied Marketing Knowledge: Discussion Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Exercises
      12. Building Your Personal Brand
      13. What Do Marketers Do?
      14. Closing Company Case
      15. References
  4. Product, Promotion, Price, and Place
    1. 3 Unit Introduction
    2. 9 Products: Consumer Offerings
      1. In the Spotlight
      2. 9.1 Products, Services, and Experiences
      3. 9.2 Product Items, Product Lines, and Product Mixes
      4. 9.3 The Product Life Cycle
      5. 9.4 Marketing Strategies at Each Stage of the Product Life Cycle
      6. 9.5 Branding and Brand Development
      7. 9.6 Forms of Brand Development, Brand Loyalty, and Brand Metrics
      8. 9.7 Creating Value through Packaging and Labeling
      9. 9.8 Environmental Concerns Regarding Packaging
      10. 9.9 Ethical Issues in Packaging
      11. Chapter Summary
      12. Key Terms
      13. Applied Marketing Knowledge: Discussion Questions
      14. Critical Thinking Exercises
      15. Building Your Personal Brand
      16. What Do Marketers Do?
      17. Marketing Plan Exercise
      18. Closing Company Case
      19. References
    3. 10 Maintaining a Competitive Edge with New Offerings
      1. In the Spotlight
      2. 10.1 New Products from a Customer’s Perspective
      3. 10.2 Stages of the New Product Development Process
      4. 10.3 The Use of Metrics in Evaluating New Products
      5. 10.4 Factors Contributing to the Success or Failure of New Products
      6. 10.5 Stages in the Consumer Adoption Process for New Products
      7. 10.6 Ethical Considerations in New Product Development
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Key Terms
      10. Applied Marketing Knowledge: Discussion Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Exercises
      12. Building Your Personal Brand
      13. What Do Marketers Do?
      14. Closing Company Case
      15. References
    4. 11 Services: The Intangible Product
      1. In the Spotlight
      2. 11.1 Classification of Services
      3. 11.2 The Service-Profit Chain Model and the Service Marketing Triangle
      4. 11.3 The Gap Model of Service Quality
      5. 11.4 Ethical Considerations in Providing Services
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Key Terms
      8. Applied Marketing Knowledge: Discussion Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Exercises
      10. Building Your Personal Brand
      11. What Do Marketers Do?
      12. Closing Company Case
      13. References
    5. 12 Pricing Products and Services
      1. In the Spotlight
      2. 12.1 Pricing and Its Role in the Marketing Mix
      3. 12.2 The Five Critical Cs of Pricing
      4. 12.3 The Five-Step Procedure for Establishing Pricing Policy
      5. 12.4 Pricing Strategies for New Products
      6. 12.5 Pricing Strategies and Tactics for Existing Products
      7. 12.6 Ethical Considerations in Pricing
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Key Terms
      10. Applied Marketing Knowledge: Discussion Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Exercises
      12. Building Your Personal Brand
      13. What Do Marketers Do?
      14. Marketing Plan Exercise
      15. Closing Company Case
      16. References
    6. 13 Integrated Marketing Communications
      1. In the Spotlight
      2. 13.1 The Promotion Mix and Its Elements
      3. 13.2 The Communication Process
      4. 13.3 Integrated Marketing Communications
      5. 13.4 Steps in the IMC Planning Process
      6. 13.5 Ethical Issues in Marketing Communication
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Key Terms
      9. Applied Marketing Knowledge: Discussion Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Exercises
      11. Building Your Personal Brand
      12. What Do Marketers Do?
      13. Marketing Plan Exercise
      14. Closing Company Case
      15. References
    7. 14 The Promotion Mix: Advertising and Public Relations
      1. In the Spotlight
      2. 14.1 Advertising in the Promotion Mix
      3. 14.2 Major Decisions in Developing an Advertising Plan
      4. 14.3 The Use of Metrics to Measure Advertising Campaign Effectiveness
      5. 14.4 Public Relations and Its Role in the Promotion Mix
      6. 14.5 The Advantages and Disadvantages of Public Relations
      7. 14.6 Ethical Concerns in Advertising and Public Relations
      8. Chapter Summary
      9. Key Terms
      10. Applied Marketing Knowledge: Discussion Questions
      11. Critical Thinking Exercises
      12. Building Your Personal Brand
      13. What Do Marketers Do?
      14. Closing Company Case
      15. References
    8. 15 The Promotion Mix: Personal Selling and Sales Promotion
      1. In the Spotlight
      2. 15.1 Personal Selling and Its Role in the Promotion Mix
      3. 15.2 Classifications of Salespeople Involved in Personal Selling
      4. 15.3 Steps in the Personal Selling Process
      5. 15.4 Management of the Sales Force
      6. 15.5 Sales Promotion and Its Role in the Promotion Mix
      7. 15.6 Main Types of Sales Promotion
      8. 15.7 Ethical Issues in Personal Selling and Sales Promotion
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Key Terms
      11. Applied Marketing Knowledge: Discussion Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Exercises
      13. Building Your Personal Brand
      14. What Do Marketers Do?
      15. Closing Company Case
      16. References
    9. 16 Direct, Online, Social Media, and Mobile Marketing
      1. In the Spotlight
      2. 16.1 Traditional Direct Marketing
      3. 16.2 Social Media and Mobile Marketing
      4. 16.3 Metrics Used to Evaluate the Success of Online Marketing
      5. 16.4 Ethical Issues in Digital Marketing and Social Media
      6. Chapter Summary
      7. Key Terms
      8. Applied Marketing Knowledge: Discussion Questions
      9. Critical Thinking Exercises
      10. Building Your Personal Brand
      11. What Do Marketers Do?
      12. Closing Company Case
      13. References
    10. 17 Distribution: Delivering Customer Value
      1. In the Spotlight
      2. 17.1 The Use and Value of Marketing Channels
      3. 17.2 Types of Marketing Channels
      4. 17.3 Factors Influencing Channel Choice
      5. 17.4 Managing the Distribution Channel
      6. 17.5 The Supply Chain and Its Functions
      7. 17.6 Logistics and Its Functions
      8. 17.7 Ethical Issues in Supply Chain Management
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Key Terms
      11. Applied Marketing Knowledge: Discussion Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Exercises
      13. Building Your Personal Brand
      14. What Do Marketers Do?
      15. Marketing Plan Exercise
      16. Closing Company Case
      17. References
    11. 18 Retailing and Wholesaling
      1. In the Spotlight
      2. 18.1 Retailing and the Role of Retailers in the Distribution Channel
      3. 18.2 Major Types of Retailers
      4. 18.3 Retailing Strategy Decisions
      5. 18.4 Recent Trends in Retailing
      6. 18.5 Wholesaling
      7. 18.6 Recent Trends in Wholesaling
      8. 18.7 Ethical Issues in Retailing and Wholesaling
      9. Chapter Summary
      10. Key Terms
      11. Applied Marketing Knowledge: Discussion Questions
      12. Critical Thinking Exercises
      13. Building Your Personal Brand
      14. What Do Marketers Do?
      15. Marketing Plan Exercise
      16. Closing Company Case
      17. References
    12. 19 Sustainable Marketing: The New Paradigm
      1. In the Spotlight
      2. 19.1 Sustainable Marketing
      3. 19.2 Traditional Marketing versus Sustainable Marketing
      4. 19.3 The Benefits of Sustainable Marketing
      5. 19.4 Sustainable Marketing Principles
      6. 19.5 Purpose-Driven Marketing
      7. Chapter Summary
      8. Key Terms
      9. Applied Marketing Knowledge: Discussion Questions
      10. Critical Thinking Exercises
      11. Building Your Personal Brand
      12. References
  5. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
    17. Chapter 17
    18. Chapter 18
    19. Chapter 19
  6. Index

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • 1 Discuss ethical issues pertaining to B2B marketing.
  • 2 Explain the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
  • 3 Provide an example of a company that displays ethics in B2B marketing.

Business Culture and Industry Practices

As we’ve seen above, there are several differences between B2C and B2B marketing. Consider purchasing, for example. Unlike B2C transactions, it is far more common in B2B transactions for vendors to offer “perks” such as free dinners, golf outings, and trips. In some foreign countries, B2B and government buyers not only expect these types of “perks” but also may demand bribes if you want to do business with them on their turf. This presents unique ethical challenges for B2B sellers and buyers. As a B2B seller, of course you want to make the sale, particularly if it’s a large sale. On the other hand, you know that a reputation for ethical behavior, including honesty, transparency, and open communication, is critical to the success of your business and may even be the decisive factor in a B2B buyer’s decision to buy from you instead of a competitor.

Bribes and “Grease Payments”

Transparency International, a watchdog group, annually ranks the likelihood of companies from the world’s industrialized countries to bribe abroad. The index ranks 180 countries and territories by their perceived levels of public sector corruption on a sale of 1 to 100, in which 100 is perceived to be very clean and 0 is perceived to be highly corrupt.17

Which countries ranked in the bottom five for 2021? Let’s take a look:

  • South Sudan
  • Syria
  • Somalia
  • Venezuela
  • Yemen18

If you’re curious, the United States ranked 25th in the world. And the least corrupt countries in 2021? That would be Denmark, Finland, and New Zealand, which tied for first place.19

Let’s consider how you would handle a scenario involving bribes. You’re the plant manager in Taiwan for a US-based electronics company. You are expecting a critical shipment of diodes that are being imported into Taiwan from South Vietnam. Without the diodes, you will miss an important production deadline for a new—and potentially lucrative—customer. The shipment arrives in the Port of Taipei on a timely basis, but customs refuse to release the shipment, claiming that it needs to do further inspection, and it may be several days or even a couple of weeks before the shipment is released. However, an agent of customs advises you that in exchange for a “facilitation fee” of several hundred dollars, the process can be expedited. How do you handle this? Do you pay the “facilitation fee” (essentially a bribe, which is illegal according to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, covered below) and meet your customer’s deadline, or do you refuse to pay the fee and miss your customer’s deadline? How will missing that deadline impact your firm’s relationship with the new customer?

Let’s consider how you would handle still another similar scenario. You’re the regional distribution manager for a US company, and you’ve been assigned to head up a new distribution facility in a South American country. At least two other competitors (both foreign corporations) are also trying to enter the same market, so you’ve been instructed to establish this facility as quickly as possible in order to beat the competition. However, government officials have advised you that it may take up to 10 months to obtain a building permit but that the time frame could be considerably shortened in exchange for the payment of an “expediting fee.” These fees (essentially a bribe) are both illegal according to US law. However, your competitors are foreign firms not subject to US law, and paying such fees is neither illegal nor considered unethical. How will you handle this situation? Will you pay the fees in order to be first in the market, or will you let your competitors beat you to the market?

These are a couple of dilemmas faced by marketers in B2B situations.

Price Fixing

Price fixing—an agreement among competitors (either written, verbal, or inferred from the parties’ conduct) that affects prices or competitive terms—is prohibited by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC).20 Keep in mind that, despite the term, price fixing isn’t confined to an agreement to set the same price. Companies can also be involved in price fixing if they offer or withhold the same discounts or shipping terms or set a production amount or quota.

Price fixing is illegal because it’s considered anticompetitive and hurts both consumers and businesses. Let’s illustrate with a real-life example with a company you’re likely familiar with—StarKist. In 2019, a San Francisco federal judge ordered the company to pay a fine in the amount of $100 million in connection with a canned tuna price-fixing conspiracy that involved StarKist, Bumble Bee Foods, and Chicken of the Sea, who regularly exchanged information about their sales and plans for pricing. The lawsuit alleged that, under the scheme, consumers were forced to pay more for canned tuna than they would have otherwise.21

The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act

The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) was enacted in 1977. Its purpose is to prohibit the payment of bribes (sometimes called “facilitation fees”) to foreign officials in order to obtain or retain business. The FCPA applies to prohibited conduct anywhere in the world and extends to publicly traded companies and their officers, directors, employees, stockholders, and agents.22

The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and the Department of Justice work cooperatively to enforce the FCPA. Sanctions for violations can be significant, including both civil and criminal penalties. The SEC can bring civil enforcement actions against companies (along with their officers, directors, employees, stockholders, and agents) for violations or for bribery, and if found guilty under the act, the company may have to pay back its “ill-gotten gains” as well as paying prejudgment interest and civil penalties. For example, one of its most recent cases involved KT Corporation, a South Korean telecommunications company, in which the SEC alleged that the company had violated the books and records and internal accounting controls provisions of the FCPA by making improper payments to government officials in Korea and Vietnam.23

Companies with a Conscience

Kforce

A group of people work around a table. They are talking and writing on stickie notes. Behind them is a flip board with stickie notes stuck to it and a chalkboard with writing and diagrams on it.
Figure 4.8 Giving to the community is continuing to grow as a priority for many companies, so they continually collaborate to develop ideas and initiatives within their mission statements or business plans. (credit: “Design a Better Business Masterclass @ Zoku Amsterdam, October 2017” by Sebastiaan ter Burg/flickr, CC BY 2.0)

Kforce is a B2B professional staffing and solutions firm that specializes in technology, finance, and accounting. Headquartered in Tampa, Florida, the company has over 50 offices nationwide and two national recruiting centers.24

The location of its corporate headquarters played a big role when Hurricane Irma struck South Florida and the Bahamas in 2017, because the hurricane’s impact was felt on a personal level by the company. The hurricane, which struck Florida as a Category 4 storm, ripped off roofs, flooded coastal cities, and knocked out power for more than 6.8 million people.25

Instead of idly standing by or focusing solely on getting its business back up and running, Kforce decided to “make lemonade out of lemons” and have a positive impact on the community (see Figure 4.8). The company raised $1 million for the American Red Cross and sponsored private jet missions that flew essential supplies to the Bahamas. It also encouraged users to make donations for hurricane relief, generating several thousand additional dollars for the cause.26

But Kforce’s philanthropy after Hurricane Irma wasn’t a one-time deal. In 2021, the company expanded its “Day of Giving” campaign to a “Season of Impact” and encouraged employees to give their time and talents to nonprofit organizations of their choice. It also held a number of events such as a food drive and the Tampa Bay Heart Walk to benefit the American Heart Association.27

KForce does a lot for the community. Check out its website to learn more about its corporate social responsibility programs.

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