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5A framework
map of the consumer’s various need states as they find out about a product and finally decide to purchase
a paid form of nonpersonal communication about a product, service, or idea
buy one get one (BOGO)
promotion strategy in which consumers are offered the opportunity to buy one product at regular price and get a second item free
communication channel
delivery mechanism that takes the message from the company to the consumer
continuous promotional schedule
process of conducting promotions year-round on a regular schedule
sales promotion strategy that works to induce a consumer to buy a product based on a price reduction
creative strategy
method of translating a message into words, images, and sounds
method of transforming and interpreting a message
direct marketing
method of promotion that directly connects with the customer and generally requires a response or transaction
emotional appeals
advertising messages that appeal to human emotions
process of putting ideas and thoughts into a transmittable form
enter to win
promotion strategy where consumers must complete entry requirements for a chance to win something of value from a company
fear appeals
campaigns that seek to change behavior through fear
feedback loop
notification that the message has been received between the sender and the receiver
flighting promotion schedule
process of running a period of heavy promotions and then going for a period of time without any promotional messaging
number of times the target market is exposed to a promotion
integrated marketing communications
development and execution of multiple promotional methods that include a coordinated message
Internet/digital marketing
promotional method that utilizes the Internet and digital technology such as text messaging, phone applications, and social media to reach consumers
key performance indicators (KPIs)
methods of evaluating promotional campaigns
various methods of communicating with a target audience; may include broadcast, print, outdoor, and other forms
message strategy
method of developing a message based on how the message will best tie the brand to the target market
moral appeal
information communicated to the consumer to appeal to their sense of right and wrong
unplanned distractions that interfere with the communication between a sender and a receiver
paid sponsorship
when a person promoting a product is paid by the company to make the endorsement
personal selling
one-to-one communication between the seller and the buyer; used to inform and persuade the buyer
promotion mix
tactics marketers use to communicate with the customer
promotional mix elements
tactics to communicate with the customer including advertising, sales promotion, personal selling, public relations, and direct marketing
public relations
nonpaid, nonpersonal communication
providing unrealistic and unsubstantiated claims about a product
pulsing schedule
process of running steady promotions followed by a period of heavy promotions
rational appeals
information communicated to the consumer based on how they will benefit
sales promotion strategy in which consumers must provide key information to a company in exchange for dollars off the product
intended message recipient
return on customer investment (ROCI)
a marginal analysis that shows the efficiency of marketing communication spending
sales promotion
promotion that creates an incentive to purchase; provides for a fairly immediate increase in sales in the short term
source of a message; can be an organization or person
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