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5Ms of marketing
internal elements of a marketing plan that need to be resolved if the plan is successful
a person or institution that purchases goods or services
the final user of a purchased product or service
a person who purchases a product or service
customer equity
total combined customer lifetime values of all the company’s customers
customer loyalty
an ongoing positive relationship between a customer and a business
customer relationship management (CRM)
all strategies, techniques, tools, and technologies used by companies to develop, acquire, and retain customers
customer retention
the ability of a company to turn customers into repeat buyers and prevent them from switching to a competitor
customer value
the ratio of the perceived benefits relative to the costs incurred by the customer in acquiring the product or service
customer-driven marketing strategy
a marketing strategy that shifts the focus from the product or service to its users
delight needs
an added value that a customer might receive from a seller without prior expectation or request for the same
desired object
a physical good, service, or experience that consumers expect will satisfy their wants and/or needs
ethical marketing
process that emphasizes trustworthy, transparent, social, and culturally sensitive marketing policies
exchange process
the process of satisfying a need or want by giving something of value in exchange
external interested parties
a person or organization that does not have a direct relationship with a company but is affected by the operations of the business
form utility
the value given to a product by virtue of the fact that the materials and components that comprise it have been combined to make the finished product
interested parties
a group that has an interest in a company or organization and can either affect or be affected by it; often referred to as “stakeholders”
internal interested parties
those persons whose interest in a company comes through a direct relationship such as employment, ownership, or investment
internal marketing
the promotion of a company’s objectives, products, and services to internal parties, such as employees, owners, managers, and shareholders
internet advertising
a set of tools for delivering promotional messages to people worldwide, using the internet as a global marketing platform
the set of external factors and forces, not controlled by the company, that influence its operations
the activities a company undertakes to promote the buying or selling of a product or service
marketing concept
marketing philosophy that firms should analyze the needs of their customers and then make decisions to satisfy those needs better than the competition
marketing environment
all of the internal and external factors that drive and influence an organization’s marketing activities
marketing mix
the set of actions or tactics that a company uses to promote its brand or product in the market
marketing process
the series of steps that assist businesses in planning, analyzing, implementing, and adjusting their marketing strategy
marketing strategy
a plan of action designed to promote or sell a product or service
those factors or elements in a firm’s immediate environment that affect its performance and decision-making
organizational culture
beliefs and behaviors that determine how a company’s employees and management interact and handle customer relationships
PESTLE analysis
a strategic framework used to assess the political, economic, social, technological, legal, and environmental factors affecting an organization
the geographical location in which the company sells its products and/or provides its services
place utility
making goods and/or services physically available or accessible to potential customers
possession utility
the amount of usefulness or perceived value from owning a product
the cost that consumers pay in order to acquire a product or service
anything that can be offered to a market that might satisfy a want or need
product concept
the orientation that consumers will favor those products that offer the most quality, performance, or innovative features
production concept
the orientation that consumers will always acquire products that are cheaper and more readily available
any type of marketing communication used to inform audiences of the relative merits or a product, service, or brand
real needs
the value the customer is going to derive from the stated good or service
companies that purchase large quantities of goods from producers and then sell smaller quantities to end customers for personal use or consumption
sales concept
orientation that analyzes buying and selling effects to place the focus primarily on generating sales transactions
secret needs
the needs that the consumer feels reluctant to admit
the individual or organization that supplies the need-satisfying product, service, or experience
societal marketing concept
philosophy that a company should make marketing decisions by considering not only consumers’ wants and the company’s capabilities but also society’s long-term interests
stated needs
those product or service needs that are clearly specified by the customer
sometimes also called vendors, these are partners from whom we receive the parts and products necessary for our business
time utility
adding value to the consumer by having the product or service available when the consumer needs it
unstated needs
those needs that are not obvious but are expected by the customer
how a product can be useful to customers in a way that convinces them to make a purchase
the difference between a customer’s evaluation of the benefits and costs of one product when compared with others
value proposition
a promise of value to be delivered, communicated, and acknowledged
companies that purchase large quantities of products from producers and then sell to smaller businesses, such as retail stores
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