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Principles of Accounting, Volume 2: Managerial Accounting

7.5 Explain How Budgets Are Used to Evaluate Goals

Principles of Accounting, Volume 2: Managerial Accounting7.5 Explain How Budgets Are Used to Evaluate Goals
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Accounting as a Tool for Managers
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 1.1 Define Managerial Accounting and Identify the Three Primary Responsibilities of Management
    3. 1.2 Distinguish between Financial and Managerial Accounting
    4. 1.3 Explain the Primary Roles and Skills Required of Managerial Accountants
    5. 1.4 Describe the Role of the Institute of Management Accountants and the Use of Ethical Standards
    6. 1.5 Describe Trends in Today’s Business Environment and Analyze Their Impact on Accounting
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Thought Provokers
  3. 2 Building Blocks of Managerial Accounting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 2.1 Distinguish between Merchandising, Manufacturing, and Service Organizations
    3. 2.2 Identify and Apply Basic Cost Behavior Patterns
    4. 2.3 Estimate a Variable and Fixed Cost Equation and Predict Future Costs
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Multiple Choice
    8. Questions
    9. Exercise Set A
    10. Exercise Set B
    11. Problem Set A
    12. Problem Set B
    13. Thought Provokers
  4. 3 Cost-Volume-Profit Analysis
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 3.1 Explain Contribution Margin and Calculate Contribution Margin per Unit, Contribution Margin Ratio, and Total Contribution Margin
    3. 3.2 Calculate a Break-Even Point in Units and Dollars
    4. 3.3 Perform Break-Even Sensitivity Analysis for a Single Product Under Changing Business Situations
    5. 3.4 Perform Break-Even Sensitivity Analysis for a Multi-Product Environment Under Changing Business Situations
    6. 3.5 Calculate and Interpret a Company’s Margin of Safety and Operating Leverage
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  5. 4 Job Order Costing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 4.1 Distinguish between Job Order Costing and Process Costing
    3. 4.2 Describe and Identify the Three Major Components of Product Costs under Job Order Costing
    4. 4.3 Use the Job Order Costing Method to Trace the Flow of Product Costs through the Inventory Accounts
    5. 4.4 Compute a Predetermined Overhead Rate and Apply Overhead to Production
    6. 4.5 Compute the Cost of a Job Using Job Order Costing
    7. 4.6 Determine and Dispose of Underapplied or Overapplied Overhead
    8. 4.7 Prepare Journal Entries for a Job Order Cost System
    9. 4.8 Explain How a Job Order Cost System Applies to a Nonmanufacturing Environment
    10. Key Terms
    11. Summary
    12. Multiple Choice
    13. Questions
    14. Exercise Set A
    15. Exercise Set B
    16. Problem Set A
    17. Problem Set B
    18. Thought Provokers
  6. 5 Process Costing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 5.1 Compare and Contrast Job Order Costing and Process Costing
    3. 5.2 Explain and Identify Conversion Costs
    4. 5.3 Explain and Compute Equivalent Units and Total Cost of Production in an Initial Processing Stage
    5. 5.4 Explain and Compute Equivalent Units and Total Cost of Production in a Subsequent Processing Stage
    6. 5.5 Prepare Journal Entries for a Process Costing System
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  7. 6 Activity-Based, Variable, and Absorption Costing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 6.1 Calculate Predetermined Overhead and Total Cost under the Traditional Allocation Method
    3. 6.2 Describe and Identify Cost Drivers
    4. 6.3 Calculate Activity-Based Product Costs
    5. 6.4 Compare and Contrast Traditional and Activity-Based Costing Systems
    6. 6.5 Compare and Contrast Variable and Absorption Costing
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  8. 7 Budgeting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 7.1 Describe How and Why Managers Use Budgets
    3. 7.2 Prepare Operating Budgets
    4. 7.3 Prepare Financial Budgets
    5. 7.4 Prepare Flexible Budgets
    6. 7.5 Explain How Budgets Are Used to Evaluate Goals
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  9. 8 Standard Costs and Variances
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 8.1 Explain How and Why a Standard Cost Is Developed
    3. 8.2 Compute and Evaluate Materials Variances
    4. 8.3 Compute and Evaluate Labor Variances
    5. 8.4 Compute and Evaluate Overhead Variances
    6. 8.5 Describe How Companies Use Variance Analysis
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  10. 9 Responsibility Accounting and Decentralization
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 9.1 Differentiate between Centralized and Decentralized Management
    3. 9.2 Describe How Decision-Making Differs between Centralized and Decentralized Environments
    4. 9.3 Describe the Types of Responsibility Centers
    5. 9.4 Describe the Effects of Various Decisions on Performance Evaluation of Responsibility Centers
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  11. 10 Short-Term Decision Making
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 10.1 Identify Relevant Information for Decision-Making
    3. 10.2 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Accept or Reject a Special Order
    4. 10.3 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Make or Buy a Component
    5. 10.4 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Keep or Discontinue a Segment or Product
    6. 10.5 Evaluate and Determine Whether to Sell or Process Further
    7. 10.6 Evaluate and Determine How to Make Decisions When Resources Are Constrained
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Set A
    13. Exercise Set B
    14. Problem Set A
    15. Problem Set B
    16. Thought Provokers
  12. 11 Capital Budgeting Decisions
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 11.1 Describe Capital Investment Decisions and How They Are Applied
    3. 11.2 Evaluate the Payback and Accounting Rate of Return in Capital Investment Decisions
    4. 11.3 Explain the Time Value of Money and Calculate Present and Future Values of Lump Sums and Annuities
    5. 11.4 Use Discounted Cash Flow Models to Make Capital Investment Decisions
    6. 11.5 Compare and Contrast Non-Time Value-Based Methods and Time Value-Based Methods in Capital Investment Decisions
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  13. 12 Balanced Scorecard and Other Performance Measures
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 12.1 Explain the Importance of Performance Measurement
    3. 12.2 Identify the Characteristics of an Effective Performance Measure
    4. 12.3 Evaluate an Operating Segment or a Project Using Return on Investment, Residual Income, and Economic Value Added
    5. 12.4 Describe the Balanced Scorecard and Explain How It Is Used
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  14. 13 Sustainability Reporting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 13.1 Describe Sustainability and the Way It Creates Business Value
    3. 13.2 Identify User Needs for Information
    4. 13.3 Discuss Examples of Major Sustainability Initiatives
    5. 13.4 Future Issues in Sustainability
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Thought Provokers
  15. Financial Statement Analysis
  16. Time Value of Money
  17. Suggested Resources
  18. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
  19. Index

As you’ve learned, an advantage of budgeting is evaluating performance. Having a strong understanding of their budgets helps managers keep track of expenses and work toward the company’s goals. Companies need to understand their revenue and expense details to develop budgets as a tool for planning operations and cash flow. Part of understanding revenue and expenses is evaluating the prior year. Did the company earn the expected profit? Could it have earned a higher profit? What expenses or revenues were not on the budget? Critically evaluating the actual results versus the estimated budgetary results can help management plan for the future. Variance analysis helps the manager analyze its results. It does not necessarily find a problem, but it does indicate where a problem may exist. The same is true for favorable variances as well as unfavorable variances. A favorable variance occurs when revenue is higher than budgeted or expenses are lower than budgeted. An unfavorable variance is when revenue is lower than budgeted or expenses are higher than budgeted.

Comparing Favorable to Unfavorable Variances
Favorable Unfavorable
Actual Sales > Budgeted Sales Actual Sales < Budgeted Sales
Actual Expenses < Budgeted Expenses Actual Expenses > Budgeted expenses
Table 7.2

It is easy to understand that an unfavorable variance may be a problem. But that is not always true, as a higher labor rate may mean the company has a higher quality employee who is able to waste less material. Likewise, having a favorable variance indicates that more revenue was earned or less expenses were incurred but further analysis can indicate if costs were cut too far and better materials should have been purchased.

If a company has only a static budget, meaningful comparisons are difficult. Analyzing the sales for Bid Bad Bikes will illustrate whether there was a profit and how net income impacts the company. In the third quarter, Big Bad Bikes sold 1,400 trainers and had third quarter net income of $15,915 as shown in Figure 7.26.

Big Bad Bikes, Income Statement, For the Quarter Ending September 30, 2019: Units Sold 1,400, Sales price $70, Sales 98,000; Cost of goods sold: Direct material $5,550, Direct labor per unit 21,500, Variable manufacturing overhead 4,100, Fixed manufacturing overhead 28,900 equals total cost of goods sold 60,050 and Gross profit of 37,950. Variable sales and admin 3,550, Fixed sales and admin 17,500, Income taxes 985 equal Total other expenses 22,035, leaving Net income of 15,915.
Figure 7.26 Actual Quarter 3 Income Statement for Big Bad Bikes. (attribution: Copyright Rice University, OpenStax, under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license)

The company earned a profit during the third quarter, but what does that mean to the company? Simply having net income instead of a net loss does not help plan for the future. The third quarter static budget was for the sale of 1,500 units. Comparing that budget to the actual results shows whether there is a favorable variance or an unfavorable variance. A comparison of the actual costs with the budget for the third quarter, as shown in Figure 7.27, has a favorable variance for all of the expenses and an unfavorable variance for everything associated with revenues.

Big Bad Bikes, Actual Versus Static Budget Variance, For the Quarter Ending September 30, 2019: Actual, Budget, Variance (respectively): Units Sold 1,400, 1,500, (100) unfavorable Sales price $75, $75, $75; Sales 105,000, 112,500, (7,500) unfavorable; Cost of goods sold: Direct material $5,550, 6,000, 450 favorable; Direct labor per unit 21,500, 22,500, 1,000 favorable; Variable manufacturing overhead 4,100, 4,500, 400 favorable; Fixed manufacturing overhead 28,900, 29,000, 100 favorable Equals Total cost of goods sold 60,050, 62,000, 1,950 favorable and Gross profit of 44,950, 50,500, (5,550) unfavorable. Variable sales and admin 3,550, 3,750, 200 favorable; Fixed sales and admin 17,500, 18,000, 500 favorable; Income taxes 985, 1,000, 15 favorable Equals Total other expenses 22,035, 22,750, 715 favorable Equals Net income of 22,915, 27,750, (4,835) unfavorable.
Figure 7.27 Actual versus Static Budget for Big Bad Bikes. (attribution: Copyright Rice University, OpenStax, under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license)

How do those results advise management when evaluating the company’s performance? It is difficult to look at one variance and make a conclusion about the company or its management. However, the variances can help narrow down the areas that need addressing because they differ from the budgeted amount. For example, looking at the variance when using a static budget does not indicate the amount of the variance results because they sold 100 fewer units than budgeted. The variance for the cost of goods sold is favorable, but it should be if production was less than the budget. A static budget does not evaluate whether costs for 1,400 were appropriate for production of those 1,400 units.

Using a static budget to evaluate performance affects the bottom line as well as the individual expenses. The net income for the sale of 1,400 units is less than the budgeted net income for 1,500 units, but it does not indicate whether expenses were appropriate for 1,400 units. If there had been 1,600 units sold, the expenses would be more than the budgeted amount, but sales would be higher. Would it be fair to evaluate a manager’s control over their expenses using a static budget?

Ethical Considerations

Budget Manipulation and Ethics Training

Why is ethics training important? An organization that bases a manager’s evaluation and pay on how close to the budget the division performs may inadvertently encourage that manager to act unethically in order to get a pay raise. Many employees manipulate the budget process to enhance their earnings by garnering bonuses based upon questionably ethical behavior and improper financial reporting. Generally, this unethical behavior involves either manipulating the numbers in the budget or modifying the timing of reports to apply income to a different budget period. Kenton Walker and Gary Fleischman studied ethics in budgeting and determined that certain ethics-related structures in a business created a better operational environment.

The study found that the existence of formal ethical codes, ethics training, good management role models, and social pressure to be disclosing within an organization can be a deterrent to budget manipulation by employees. The authors recommended: “Therefore, organizations should carefully cultivate an ethical atmosphere that is sensitive to the pressures employees may feel to game the budget through actions that involve cheating and/or manipulating earnings targets to maximize bonuses.” 2 The study concluded that requiring organizational ethics training that includes role playing helps teach ethical behavior in budgeting and other areas of business. Ethics training never goes out so style.

Evaluating the expenses on a flexible budget computed for the number of units sold would provide an indication of management’s ability to control expenses. As shown in Figure 7.28, some expenses have a favorable variance, while others have an unfavorable variance. This type of variance analysis provides more information to evaluate management and help prepare the next year’s budget. For example, the direct labor in the flexible budget comparison shows an unfavorable variance, meaning the direct labor expense was more than budgeted for the production of 1,400 units. When comparing direct labor expense, the direct labor in the static budget mentioned earlier was even larger because it computed direct labor required to manufacture 1,500 units. It is not surprising that the static budget variance is favorable because 100 fewer units were actually produced. However, that information is not as useful as the unfavorable variance when comparing 1,400 units produced versus the budgeted direct labor for 1,400 units used.

Big Bad Bikes, Actual Versus Flexible Budget Variance, For the Quarter Ending September 30, 2019. Actual, Budget, Variance (respectively): Units Sold 1,400, 1,400, none; Sales price $75, $75; Sales 105,000, 105,000 none; Cost of goods sold: Direct material $5,550, 5,600, 50 favorable; Direct labor per unit 21,500, 21,000, (500) unfavorable; Variable manufacturing overhead 4,100, 4,200, 100 favorable; Fixed manufacturing overhead 28,900, 29,000, 100 favorable; Equals Total cost of goods sold 60,050, 59,800, (250) unfavorable and Gross profit of 44,950, 45,200, (250) unfavorable. Variable sales and admin 3,550, 3,500, (50) unfavorable; Fixed sales and admin 17,500, 18,000, 500 favorable; Income taxes 985, 1,000, 15 favorable; Equals Total other expenses 22,035, 22,500, 465 favorable; Equals Net income of 22,915, 22,700, 215 favorable.
Figure 7.28 Actual versus Flexible Budget for Big Bad Bikes. (attribution: Copyright Rice University, OpenStax, under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license)

Think It Through

A Budget for a New Business

You are beginning your own business and developed a budget based on modest sales and expense assumptions. The actual results are very close to the budget at the end of the first and second months. During the third month, both cash collected and paid differ significantly from the budget. What could be the cause and what should you do?

Footnotes

  • 2 Kenton B. Walker, et al. “Toeing the Line: The Ethics of Manipulating Budgets and Earnings.” Management Accounting Quarterly 14, no. 3 (Spring 2013). https://www.imanet.org/-/media/f4869589d9d444de8c211d245a0192ff.ashx
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