9.1 Strategic Management
- What is the strategic management process?
The strategic management process is the set of activities that firm managers undertake to put their firms in the best possible position to compete successfully in the marketplace. Strategic management is made up of several distinct activities: developing the firm’s vision and mission; strategic analysis; developing objectives; creating, choosing, and implementing strategies; and measuring and evaluating performance.
9.2 Firm Vision and Mission
- What is the difference between a firm’s vision and its mission?
A firm’s vision is a broad statement expressing the reason for the firm’s existence and what it hopes to accomplish. The mission statement explains (still broadly) how the firm intends to fulfill its vision—for example, by stating what products or services the firm will offer or what customers it wants to serve.
9.3 The Role of Strategic Analysis in Formulating a Strategy
- Why is strategic analysis important to strategy formulation?
Strategic analysis produces information that managers need in order to develop appropriate strategies for their firms. A good strategy should use a firm’s resources and capabilities to stake out a position in the marketplace that sets it apart from competitors and enables it to successfully compete in the external environment.
9.4 Strategic Objectives and Levels of Strategy
- What are strategic objectives, levels of strategy, and a grand strategy? How are they related?
Strategic objectives are the big-picture goals for the company: what the company will do to try to fulfill its mission. These goals are broad and are developed based on top management’s choice of a generic competitive strategy and grand strategy for the firm. For example, cost-leadership and growth competitive and grand strategies will require managers to develop objectives for growing the firm in a low-cost way.
Business-level strategy is concerned with positioning a single company or business unit that focuses on a single product or product line. The primary business-level strategies are cost leadership and differentiation, as well as focus, which is combined with one of the other two strategies (focus-cost leadership, focus-differentiation).
Corporate-level strategy is concerned with the management and direction of multi-business corporations. These large firms make decisions about what businesses and industries to operate in so they can improve their overall performance and reduce the risk they would face if all of their operations were concentrated in a single business or industry. Corporate CEOs use the BCG Matrix to evaluate their portfolio of businesses and use corporate actions like acquisitions to make significant changes to their companies.
International strategy can be combined with either of the previous two strategies to incorporate international operations into a business or corporation. International strategy answers questions of what country or countries to operate in and how to be successful in foreign operations.
Grand strategies outline an approach to firm growth. The three grand strategies are growth, stability, and defensive, and a firm chooses one of these approaches in addition to their choice of business-level, corporate, and/or international strategies. The choice of grand strategy is often dictated by conditions in the business environment such as recessions or competitor activities.
9.5 Planning Firm Actions to Implement Strategies
- How and why do managers plan? Why are goals important in the planning process?
Managers plan in order to decide what actions the firm will perform in order to achieve a specific goal. Planning includes decisions about when and how the goal should be accomplished and what resources will be required to perform the planned action. Planning is one of the basic functions of management, along with organizing, leading, and controlling.
Firms typically have several levels of planning happening simultaneously: one based on time and another based on detail. The time scale is expressed in terms of short-term (within the year) or long-term (over a yearlong) planning. Planning details become more specific as the manager moves downward in the hierarchy of planning levels. Strategic planning is the responsibility of firm leadership (CEO), while unit or division managers take the CEO’s broad plans and focus them to be more suitable for their own units (tactical planning). Operational planning is the frontline manager’s domain—they develop specific action plans for operational employees so that their work advances the entire firm towards the large-scale strategic goal.
Good goals are specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound. These terms can be remembered by using the acronym SMART. Goals are critical to planning because they focus firm activities on specific objectives or outcomes.
9.6 Measuring and Evaluating Strategic Performance
- How and why do managers evaluate the effectiveness of strategic plans?
Performance evaluation is to determine if plans have been successful and identify any changes that might be necessary. This is done both at the end and the beginning of strategic planning because when managers measure firm activities and progress towards objectives, the information they learn by doing that measurement becomes part of the analysis they use to develop improved plans and objectives to keep the firm on track to fulfill their mission and improve their overall performance.