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action statements
The means by which an organization moves forward to attain its goals.
administrative plans
Plans that work to integrate institutional-level plans with the operating plans and tie together all of the plans created for the organization’s technical core.
concurrent controls
Controls intended to prevent deviation from a planned course of action while work is in progress.
contingency plans
Plans that deal with alternative courses of action.
Monitoring the behavior of organizational members and the effectiveness of the organization itself to determine whether organizational goals are being achieved and taking corrective action if necessary.
cybernetic control
Self-regulating control procedures.
Deming cycle
A planning model directed toward attaining continuous improvement by integrating organizational learning into the planning process (plan, do, check, act).
domain/directional planning
The development of a course of action that moves an organization toward one domain or direction (and, therefore, away from other domains or directions).
goal hierarchy
The interrelationship among an organization’s job-, department-, divisional-, and organizational-level goals.
goal planning
Development of action statements to move toward the attainment of a specific goal.
hybrid control system
Control system that exercises control prior to, during, and after the performance of a work activity.
hybrid planning
The coupling of domain and goal planning.
management by objectives (MBO)
A philosophy of management, a planning and controlling technique, and an employee involvement program.
noncybernetic control
Control systems that operate independently from the work system that is being monitored; a monitoring system that is external to the target of control.
official goals
The aims of an organization that are expressed in highly abstract and general terms, generally employed for the organization’s external constituents.
operating plans
Direction and action statements for activities in the organization’s technical core.
operational goals
The aims of an organization that reflect management’s specific intentions.
outcome or goal statements
End states—the targets and outcomes that managers hope to attain.
The process by which managers establish goals and specify how these goals are to be attained.
postaction controls
Controls employed after a product or service is complete.
Controls designed to prevent deviation from a desired plan of action before work actually begins.
single-use plans
Plans developed for unique situations or problems and one-time use.
standing plans
Rules, policies, and procedures about how to deal with issues that managers face repeatedly.
strategic plans
Hierarchical plans that address an organization’s institutional-level needs and attempt to position it advantageously within its task environment.
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