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Principles of Accounting, Volume 1: Financial Accounting

16.6 Appendix: Prepare a Completed Statement of Cash Flows Using the Direct Method

Principles of Accounting, Volume 1: Financial Accounting16.6 Appendix: Prepare a Completed Statement of Cash Flows Using the Direct Method
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Role of Accounting in Society
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 1.1 Explain the Importance of Accounting and Distinguish between Financial and Managerial Accounting
    3. 1.2 Identify Users of Accounting Information and How They Apply Information
    4. 1.3 Describe Typical Accounting Activities and the Role Accountants Play in Identifying, Recording, and Reporting Financial Activities
    5. 1.4 Explain Why Accounting Is Important to Business Stakeholders
    6. 1.5 Describe the Varied Career Paths Open to Individuals with an Accounting Education
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
  3. 2 Introduction to Financial Statements
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 2.1 Describe the Income Statement, Statement of Owner’s Equity, Balance Sheet, and Statement of Cash Flows, and How They Interrelate
    3. 2.2 Define, Explain, and Provide Examples of Current and Noncurrent Assets, Current and Noncurrent Liabilities, Equity, Revenues, and Expenses
    4. 2.3 Prepare an Income Statement, Statement of Owner’s Equity, and Balance Sheet
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Multiple Choice
    8. Questions
    9. Exercise Set A
    10. Exercise Set B
    11. Problem Set A
    12. Problem Set B
    13. Thought Provokers
  4. 3 Analyzing and Recording Transactions
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 3.1 Describe Principles, Assumptions, and Concepts of Accounting and Their Relationship to Financial Statements
    3. 3.2 Define and Describe the Expanded Accounting Equation and Its Relationship to Analyzing Transactions
    4. 3.3 Define and Describe the Initial Steps in the Accounting Cycle
    5. 3.4 Analyze Business Transactions Using the Accounting Equation and Show the Impact of Business Transactions on Financial Statements
    6. 3.5 Use Journal Entries to Record Transactions and Post to T-Accounts
    7. 3.6 Prepare a Trial Balance
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Set A
    13. Exercise Set B
    14. Problem Set A
    15. Problem Set B
    16. Thought Provokers
  5. 4 The Adjustment Process
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 4.1 Explain the Concepts and Guidelines Affecting Adjusting Entries
    3. 4.2 Discuss the Adjustment Process and Illustrate Common Types of Adjusting Entries
    4. 4.3 Record and Post the Common Types of Adjusting Entries
    5. 4.4 Use the Ledger Balances to Prepare an Adjusted Trial Balance
    6. 4.5 Prepare Financial Statements Using the Adjusted Trial Balance
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  6. 5 Completing the Accounting Cycle
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 5.1 Describe and Prepare Closing Entries for a Business
    3. 5.2 Prepare a Post-Closing Trial Balance
    4. 5.3 Apply the Results from the Adjusted Trial Balance to Compute Current Ratio and Working Capital Balance, and Explain How These Measures Represent Liquidity
    5. 5.4 Appendix: Complete a Comprehensive Accounting Cycle for a Business
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  7. 6 Merchandising Transactions
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 6.1 Compare and Contrast Merchandising versus Service Activities and Transactions
    3. 6.2 Compare and Contrast Perpetual versus Periodic Inventory Systems
    4. 6.3 Analyze and Record Transactions for Merchandise Purchases Using the Perpetual Inventory System
    5. 6.4 Analyze and Record Transactions for the Sale of Merchandise Using the Perpetual Inventory System
    6. 6.5 Discuss and Record Transactions Applying the Two Commonly Used Freight-In Methods
    7. 6.6 Describe and Prepare Multi-Step and Simple Income Statements for Merchandising Companies
    8. 6.7 Appendix: Analyze and Record Transactions for Merchandise Purchases and Sales Using the Periodic Inventory System
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  8. 7 Accounting Information Systems
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 7.1 Define and Describe the Components of an Accounting Information System
    3. 7.2 Describe and Explain the Purpose of Special Journals and Their Importance to Stakeholders
    4. 7.3 Analyze and Journalize Transactions Using Special Journals
    5. 7.4 Prepare a Subsidiary Ledger
    6. 7.5 Describe Career Paths Open to Individuals with a Joint Education in Accounting and Information Systems
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  9. 8 Fraud, Internal Controls, and Cash
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 8.1 Analyze Fraud in the Accounting Workplace
    3. 8.2 Define and Explain Internal Controls and Their Purpose within an Organization
    4. 8.3 Describe Internal Controls within an Organization
    5. 8.4 Define the Purpose and Use of a Petty Cash Fund, and Prepare Petty Cash Journal Entries
    6. 8.5 Discuss Management Responsibilities for Maintaining Internal Controls within an Organization
    7. 8.6 Define the Purpose of a Bank Reconciliation, and Prepare a Bank Reconciliation and Its Associated Journal Entries
    8. 8.7 Describe Fraud in Financial Statements and Sarbanes-Oxley Act Requirements
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  10. 9 Accounting for Receivables
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 9.1 Explain the Revenue Recognition Principle and How It Relates to Current and Future Sales and Purchase Transactions
    3. 9.2 Account for Uncollectible Accounts Using the Balance Sheet and Income Statement Approaches
    4. 9.3 Determine the Efficiency of Receivables Management Using Financial Ratios
    5. 9.4 Discuss the Role of Accounting for Receivables in Earnings Management
    6. 9.5 Apply Revenue Recognition Principles to Long-Term Projects
    7. 9.6 Explain How Notes Receivable and Accounts Receivable Differ
    8. 9.7 Appendix: Comprehensive Example of Bad Debt Estimation
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  11. 10 Inventory
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 10.1 Describe and Demonstrate the Basic Inventory Valuation Methods and Their Cost Flow Assumptions
    3. 10.2 Calculate the Cost of Goods Sold and Ending Inventory Using the Periodic Method
    4. 10.3 Calculate the Cost of Goods Sold and Ending Inventory Using the Perpetual Method
    5. 10.4 Explain and Demonstrate the Impact of Inventory Valuation Errors on the Income Statement and Balance Sheet
    6. 10.5 Examine the Efficiency of Inventory Management Using Financial Ratios
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  12. 11 Long-Term Assets
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 11.1 Distinguish between Tangible and Intangible Assets
    3. 11.2 Analyze and Classify Capitalized Costs versus Expenses
    4. 11.3 Explain and Apply Depreciation Methods to Allocate Capitalized Costs
    5. 11.4 Describe Accounting for Intangible Assets and Record Related Transactions
    6. 11.5 Describe Some Special Issues in Accounting for Long-Term Assets
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  13. 12 Current Liabilities
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 12.1 Identify and Describe Current Liabilities
    3. 12.2 Analyze, Journalize, and Report Current Liabilities
    4. 12.3 Define and Apply Accounting Treatment for Contingent Liabilities
    5. 12.4 Prepare Journal Entries to Record Short-Term Notes Payable
    6. 12.5 Record Transactions Incurred in Preparing Payroll
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  14. 13 Long-Term Liabilities
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 13.1 Explain the Pricing of Long-Term Liabilities
    3. 13.2 Compute Amortization of Long-Term Liabilities Using the Effective-Interest Method
    4. 13.3 Prepare Journal Entries to Reflect the Life Cycle of Bonds
    5. 13.4 Appendix: Special Topics Related to Long-Term Liabilities
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  15. 14 Corporation Accounting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 14.1 Explain the Process of Securing Equity Financing through the Issuance of Stock
    3. 14.2 Analyze and Record Transactions for the Issuance and Repurchase of Stock
    4. 14.3 Record Transactions and the Effects on Financial Statements for Cash Dividends, Property Dividends, Stock Dividends, and Stock Splits
    5. 14.4 Compare and Contrast Owners’ Equity versus Retained Earnings
    6. 14.5 Discuss the Applicability of Earnings per Share as a Method to Measure Performance
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  16. 15 Partnership Accounting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 15.1 Describe the Advantages and Disadvantages of Organizing as a Partnership
    3. 15.2 Describe How a Partnership Is Created, Including the Associated Journal Entries
    4. 15.3 Compute and Allocate Partners’ Share of Income and Loss
    5. 15.4 Prepare Journal Entries to Record the Admission and Withdrawal of a Partner
    6. 15.5 Discuss and Record Entries for the Dissolution of a Partnership
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  17. 16 Statement of Cash Flows
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 16.1 Explain the Purpose of the Statement of Cash Flows
    3. 16.2 Differentiate between Operating, Investing, and Financing Activities
    4. 16.3 Prepare the Statement of Cash Flows Using the Indirect Method
    5. 16.4 Prepare the Completed Statement of Cash Flows Using the Indirect Method
    6. 16.5 Use Information from the Statement of Cash Flows to Prepare Ratios to Assess Liquidity and Solvency
    7. 16.6 Appendix: Prepare a Completed Statement of Cash Flows Using the Direct Method
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Set A
    13. Exercise Set B
    14. Problem Set A
    15. Problem Set B
    16. Thought Provokers
  18. Financial Statement Analysis
  19. Time Value of Money
  20. Suggested Resources
  21. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
  22. Index
Propensity Company. Statement of Cash Flows: Direct Method. Year Ended December 31, 2018. Cash flow from operating activities. Cash collected from customers $242,500. Cash payments: to suppliers for inventory $157,300; for salaries 42,200; for insurance 12,700; for interest 3,500; for income taxes 1,860, for other operating expenses 11,100. Total 228,660. Net cash flow: operating activities 13,480. Cash flow from investing activities: Proceeds from sale of land 14,800; Cost of new plant assets (equipment) (40,000). Net cash flow: investing activities (25,200). Cash flow from financing activities: Payment of notes payable (principal) (11,000); Issuance of common stock 45,000; Payment of dividends (440). Net cash flow: financing activities 33,560. Total cash flow increase/(decrease) 22,200. Cash balance, December 31, 2017 24,300. Cash balance, December 31, 2018 $46,500. Non-cash investing and financial activities: Land acquired in exchange for note payable $20,000.
Figure 16.9 Statement of Cash Flows. (attribution: Copyright Rice University, OpenStax, under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license)

As previously mentioned, the net cash flows for all sections of the statement of cash flows are identical when using the direct method or the indirect method. The difference is just in the way that net cash flows from operating activities are calculated and presented. The direct approach requires that each item of income and expense be converted from the accrual basis value to the cash basis value for that item. This is accomplished by adjusting the accrual amount for the revenue or expense by any related current operating asset or liability. Revenue and expense items that are not related to those current asset and liability accounts would not need an adjustment.

In the following section, we demonstrate the calculations needed to assess the component pieces of the operating section using the direct approach.

Cash Collected from Customers

Cash collected from customers is different from the sales revenue that is recorded on the accrual basis financial statements. To reconcile the amount of sales revenue reported on the income statement to the cash collected from sales, calculate the maximum amount of cash that could have been collected this period (potential cash collected) by combining (a) the amount that was due from customers on the first day of the period (beginning accounts receivable) and (b) total sales revenue recorded this period. If there were no outstanding accounts receivable balance at the end of the period, then one could reasonably assume that this total was collected in full during this period. Thus, the amount collected for sales can be determined by subtracting the ending accounts receivable balance from the total potential cash that could have been collected.

Cash collected from sales revenue. Beginning balance, accounts receivable $26,000. Plus accrual basis sales 238,000. Equals potential cash collected 264,000. Less ending balance, accounts receivable 21,500. Equals cash collected from customers this period $242,500.

Cash Paid to Suppliers for Inventory

Cash paid for inventory is different from the cost of goods sold that is recorded on the accrual basis financial statements. To reconcile the amount of cost of goods sold reported on the income statement to the cash paid for inventory, it is necessary to perform two calculations. The first part of the calculation determines how much inventory was purchased, and the second part of the calculation determines how much of those purchases were paid for during the current period.

First, calculate the maximum amount of inventory that was available for sale this period by combining (a) the amount of inventory that was on hand on the last day of the period (ending inventory) and (b) total cost of goods sold recorded this period. If there were no inventory balance at the beginning of the period, then one could reasonably assume that this total was purchased entirely during the current period. Thus, the amount of inventory purchased this period can be determined by subtracting the beginning inventory balance from the total goods (inventory) available for sale.

Second, calculate the maximum amount of cash that could have been paid for inventory this period (total obligation to pay inventory costs) by combining (a) the amount that was due to suppliers on the first day of the period (beginning accounts payable) and (b) total inventory purchases this period, from the first inventory calculation. If there were no outstanding accounts payable balance at the end of the period, then one could reasonably assume that this total was paid in full during this current period. Thus, the amount paid for inventory can be determined by subtracting the ending accounts payable balance from the total obligation to pay inventory costs that could have been paid. The final number of the second calculation is the actual cash paid for inventory.

Cash paid for inventory purchase: part 1. Ending balance, inventory $48,000. Plus cost of goods sold 153,000. Equals goods available for sale 201,000. Less beginning balance, inventory 45,500. Equals inventory purchased this period 155,500. Cash paid for inventory purchases: part 2. Beginning balance, accounts payable 19,000. Plus inventory purchased (from part 1) 155,500. Equals total obligation to pay inventory costs 174,500. Less ending balance, accounts payable 17,200. Equals cash paid for inventory this period $157,300.

Cash Paid for Salaries

Cash paid for salaries is different from the salaries expense that is recorded on the accrual basis financial statements. To reconcile the amount of salaries expense reported on the income statement to the cash paid for salaries, calculate the maximum amount of cash that could have been paid for salaries this period (total obligation to pay salaries) by combining (a) the amount that was due to employees on the first day of the period (beginning salaries payable) and (b) total salaries expense recorded this period. If there were no outstanding salaries payable balance at the end of the period, then one could reasonably assume that this total was paid in full during this current period. Thus, the amount paid for salaries can be determined by subtracting the ending salaries payable balance from the total obligation to pay salaries that could have been paid.

Cash paid for expense related to a current liability. Beginning balance, salaries payable $1,500. Plus expense on income statement 42,600. Equals total obligation to pay salaries 44,100. Less ending balance, salaries payable 1,900. Equals cash paid for salaries this period $42,400.

Cash Paid for Insurance

Cash paid for insurance is different from the insurance expense that is recorded on the accrual basis financial statements. To reconcile the amount of insurance expense reported on the income statement to the cash paid for insurance premiums, calculate the maximum amount of cash that could have been paid for insurance this period (total insurance premiums expended) by combining (a) the amount of insurance premiums that were prepaid on the last day of the period (ending prepaid insurance) and (b) total insurance expense recorded this period. If there were no prepaid insurance balance at the beginning of the period, then one could reasonably assume that this total was paid entirely during the current period. Thus, the amount paid for insurance this period can be determined by subtracting the beginning prepaid insurance balance from the total insurance premiums that had been recorded as expended.

Cash paid for expense related to a prepaid asset. Ending balance, prepaid insurance $2,500. Plus insurance expense on income statement 12,000. Equals total insurance premiums expended 14,500. Less beginning balance, prepaid insurance 1,800. Equals insurance paid this period $12,700.
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