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Principles of Accounting, Volume 1: Financial Accounting

15.3 Compute and Allocate Partners’ Share of Income and Loss

Principles of Accounting, Volume 1: Financial Accounting15.3 Compute and Allocate Partners’ Share of Income and Loss
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  1. Preface
  2. 1 Role of Accounting in Society
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 1.1 Explain the Importance of Accounting and Distinguish between Financial and Managerial Accounting
    3. 1.2 Identify Users of Accounting Information and How They Apply Information
    4. 1.3 Describe Typical Accounting Activities and the Role Accountants Play in Identifying, Recording, and Reporting Financial Activities
    5. 1.4 Explain Why Accounting Is Important to Business Stakeholders
    6. 1.5 Describe the Varied Career Paths Open to Individuals with an Accounting Education
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
  3. 2 Introduction to Financial Statements
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 2.1 Describe the Income Statement, Statement of Owner’s Equity, Balance Sheet, and Statement of Cash Flows, and How They Interrelate
    3. 2.2 Define, Explain, and Provide Examples of Current and Noncurrent Assets, Current and Noncurrent Liabilities, Equity, Revenues, and Expenses
    4. 2.3 Prepare an Income Statement, Statement of Owner’s Equity, and Balance Sheet
    5. Key Terms
    6. Summary
    7. Multiple Choice
    8. Questions
    9. Exercise Set A
    10. Exercise Set B
    11. Problem Set A
    12. Problem Set B
    13. Thought Provokers
  4. 3 Analyzing and Recording Transactions
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 3.1 Describe Principles, Assumptions, and Concepts of Accounting and Their Relationship to Financial Statements
    3. 3.2 Define and Describe the Expanded Accounting Equation and Its Relationship to Analyzing Transactions
    4. 3.3 Define and Describe the Initial Steps in the Accounting Cycle
    5. 3.4 Analyze Business Transactions Using the Accounting Equation and Show the Impact of Business Transactions on Financial Statements
    6. 3.5 Use Journal Entries to Record Transactions and Post to T-Accounts
    7. 3.6 Prepare a Trial Balance
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Set A
    13. Exercise Set B
    14. Problem Set A
    15. Problem Set B
    16. Thought Provokers
  5. 4 The Adjustment Process
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 4.1 Explain the Concepts and Guidelines Affecting Adjusting Entries
    3. 4.2 Discuss the Adjustment Process and Illustrate Common Types of Adjusting Entries
    4. 4.3 Record and Post the Common Types of Adjusting Entries
    5. 4.4 Use the Ledger Balances to Prepare an Adjusted Trial Balance
    6. 4.5 Prepare Financial Statements Using the Adjusted Trial Balance
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  6. 5 Completing the Accounting Cycle
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 5.1 Describe and Prepare Closing Entries for a Business
    3. 5.2 Prepare a Post-Closing Trial Balance
    4. 5.3 Apply the Results from the Adjusted Trial Balance to Compute Current Ratio and Working Capital Balance, and Explain How These Measures Represent Liquidity
    5. 5.4 Appendix: Complete a Comprehensive Accounting Cycle for a Business
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  7. 6 Merchandising Transactions
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 6.1 Compare and Contrast Merchandising versus Service Activities and Transactions
    3. 6.2 Compare and Contrast Perpetual versus Periodic Inventory Systems
    4. 6.3 Analyze and Record Transactions for Merchandise Purchases Using the Perpetual Inventory System
    5. 6.4 Analyze and Record Transactions for the Sale of Merchandise Using the Perpetual Inventory System
    6. 6.5 Discuss and Record Transactions Applying the Two Commonly Used Freight-In Methods
    7. 6.6 Describe and Prepare Multi-Step and Simple Income Statements for Merchandising Companies
    8. 6.7 Appendix: Analyze and Record Transactions for Merchandise Purchases and Sales Using the Periodic Inventory System
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  8. 7 Accounting Information Systems
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 7.1 Define and Describe the Components of an Accounting Information System
    3. 7.2 Describe and Explain the Purpose of Special Journals and Their Importance to Stakeholders
    4. 7.3 Analyze and Journalize Transactions Using Special Journals
    5. 7.4 Prepare a Subsidiary Ledger
    6. 7.5 Describe Career Paths Open to Individuals with a Joint Education in Accounting and Information Systems
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  9. 8 Fraud, Internal Controls, and Cash
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 8.1 Analyze Fraud in the Accounting Workplace
    3. 8.2 Define and Explain Internal Controls and Their Purpose within an Organization
    4. 8.3 Describe Internal Controls within an Organization
    5. 8.4 Define the Purpose and Use of a Petty Cash Fund, and Prepare Petty Cash Journal Entries
    6. 8.5 Discuss Management Responsibilities for Maintaining Internal Controls within an Organization
    7. 8.6 Define the Purpose of a Bank Reconciliation, and Prepare a Bank Reconciliation and Its Associated Journal Entries
    8. 8.7 Describe Fraud in Financial Statements and Sarbanes-Oxley Act Requirements
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  10. 9 Accounting for Receivables
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 9.1 Explain the Revenue Recognition Principle and How It Relates to Current and Future Sales and Purchase Transactions
    3. 9.2 Account for Uncollectible Accounts Using the Balance Sheet and Income Statement Approaches
    4. 9.3 Determine the Efficiency of Receivables Management Using Financial Ratios
    5. 9.4 Discuss the Role of Accounting for Receivables in Earnings Management
    6. 9.5 Apply Revenue Recognition Principles to Long-Term Projects
    7. 9.6 Explain How Notes Receivable and Accounts Receivable Differ
    8. 9.7 Appendix: Comprehensive Example of Bad Debt Estimation
    9. Key Terms
    10. Summary
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Questions
    13. Exercise Set A
    14. Exercise Set B
    15. Problem Set A
    16. Problem Set B
    17. Thought Provokers
  11. 10 Inventory
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 10.1 Describe and Demonstrate the Basic Inventory Valuation Methods and Their Cost Flow Assumptions
    3. 10.2 Calculate the Cost of Goods Sold and Ending Inventory Using the Periodic Method
    4. 10.3 Calculate the Cost of Goods Sold and Ending Inventory Using the Perpetual Method
    5. 10.4 Explain and Demonstrate the Impact of Inventory Valuation Errors on the Income Statement and Balance Sheet
    6. 10.5 Examine the Efficiency of Inventory Management Using Financial Ratios
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  12. 11 Long-Term Assets
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 11.1 Distinguish between Tangible and Intangible Assets
    3. 11.2 Analyze and Classify Capitalized Costs versus Expenses
    4. 11.3 Explain and Apply Depreciation Methods to Allocate Capitalized Costs
    5. 11.4 Describe Accounting for Intangible Assets and Record Related Transactions
    6. 11.5 Describe Some Special Issues in Accounting for Long-Term Assets
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  13. 12 Current Liabilities
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 12.1 Identify and Describe Current Liabilities
    3. 12.2 Analyze, Journalize, and Report Current Liabilities
    4. 12.3 Define and Apply Accounting Treatment for Contingent Liabilities
    5. 12.4 Prepare Journal Entries to Record Short-Term Notes Payable
    6. 12.5 Record Transactions Incurred in Preparing Payroll
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  14. 13 Long-Term Liabilities
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 13.1 Explain the Pricing of Long-Term Liabilities
    3. 13.2 Compute Amortization of Long-Term Liabilities Using the Effective-Interest Method
    4. 13.3 Prepare Journal Entries to Reflect the Life Cycle of Bonds
    5. 13.4 Appendix: Special Topics Related to Long-Term Liabilities
    6. Key Terms
    7. Summary
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Questions
    10. Exercise Set A
    11. Exercise Set B
    12. Problem Set A
    13. Problem Set B
    14. Thought Provokers
  15. 14 Corporation Accounting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 14.1 Explain the Process of Securing Equity Financing through the Issuance of Stock
    3. 14.2 Analyze and Record Transactions for the Issuance and Repurchase of Stock
    4. 14.3 Record Transactions and the Effects on Financial Statements for Cash Dividends, Property Dividends, Stock Dividends, and Stock Splits
    5. 14.4 Compare and Contrast Owners’ Equity versus Retained Earnings
    6. 14.5 Discuss the Applicability of Earnings per Share as a Method to Measure Performance
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  16. 15 Partnership Accounting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 15.1 Describe the Advantages and Disadvantages of Organizing as a Partnership
    3. 15.2 Describe How a Partnership Is Created, Including the Associated Journal Entries
    4. 15.3 Compute and Allocate Partners’ Share of Income and Loss
    5. 15.4 Prepare Journal Entries to Record the Admission and Withdrawal of a Partner
    6. 15.5 Discuss and Record Entries for the Dissolution of a Partnership
    7. Key Terms
    8. Summary
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Questions
    11. Exercise Set A
    12. Exercise Set B
    13. Problem Set A
    14. Problem Set B
    15. Thought Provokers
  17. 16 Statement of Cash Flows
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 16.1 Explain the Purpose of the Statement of Cash Flows
    3. 16.2 Differentiate between Operating, Investing, and Financing Activities
    4. 16.3 Prepare the Statement of Cash Flows Using the Indirect Method
    5. 16.4 Prepare the Completed Statement of Cash Flows Using the Indirect Method
    6. 16.5 Use Information from the Statement of Cash Flows to Prepare Ratios to Assess Liquidity and Solvency
    7. 16.6 Appendix: Prepare a Completed Statement of Cash Flows Using the Direct Method
    8. Key Terms
    9. Summary
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Questions
    12. Exercise Set A
    13. Exercise Set B
    14. Problem Set A
    15. Problem Set B
    16. Thought Provokers
  18. Financial Statement Analysis
  19. Time Value of Money
  20. Suggested Resources
  21. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
    13. Chapter 13
    14. Chapter 14
    15. Chapter 15
    16. Chapter 16
  22. Index

The landscaping partnership is going well and has realized increases in the number of jobs performed as well as in the partnership’s earnings. At the end of the year, the partners meet to review the income and expenses. Once that has been done, they need to allocate the profit or loss based upon their agreement.

Allocation of Income and Loss

Just like sole proprietorships, partnerships make four entries to close the books at the end of the year. The entries for a partnership are:

  1. Debit each revenue account and credit the income section account for total revenue.
  2. Credit each expense account and debit the income section account for total expenses.
  3. If the partnership had income, debit the income section for its balance and credit each partner’s capital account based on his or her share of the income. If the partnership realized a loss, credit the income section and debit each partner’s capital account based on his or her share of the loss.
  4. Credit each partner’s drawing account and debit each partner’s capital account for the balance in that same partner’s drawing account.

The first two entries are the same as for a proprietorship. Both revenue and expense accounts are temporary accounts. The last two entries are different because there is more than one equity account and more than one drawing account. Capital accounts are equity accounts for each partner that track all activities, such as profit sharing, reductions due to distributions, and contributions by partners to the partnership. Capital accounts are permanent while drawing accounts must be zeroed out for each accounting period.

By December 31 at the end of the first year, the partnership realized net income of $50,000. Since Dale and Ciara had agreed to a 50:50 split in their partnership agreement, each partner will record an increase to their capital accounts of $25,000. The journal records the entries to allocate year end net income to the partner capital accounts.

Journal entries. First entry dated December 31, 2019. Debit Income summary 25,000. Credit Dale, Capital 25,000. Explanation: “To record 50:50 split of net income.” Second entry dated December 31, 2019. Debit Income summary 25,000. Credit Ciara, Capital 25,000. Explanation: “To record 50:50 split of net income.”

Income Allocations

Not every partnership allocates profit and losses on an even basis. As you’ve learned, the partnership agreement should delineate how the partners will share net income and net losses. The partnership needs to find a methodology that is fair and will equitably reflect each partner’s service and financial commitment to the partnership. The following are examples of typical ways to allocate income:

  1. A fixed ratio where income is allocated in the same way every period. The ratio can be expressed as a percentage (80% and 20%), a proportion (7:3) or a fraction (1/4, 3/4).
  2. A ratio based on beginning-of-year capital balances, end-of-year capital balances, or an average capital balance during the year.
  3. Partners may receive a guaranteed salary, and the remaining profit or loss is allocated on a fixed ratio.
  4. Income can be allocated based on the proportion of interest in the capital account. If one partner has a capital account that equates to 75% of capital, that partner would take 75% of the income.
  5. Some combination of all or some of the above methods.

A fixed ratio is the easiest approach because it is the most straightforward. As an example, assume that Jeffers and Singh are partners. Each contributed the same amount of capital. However, Jeffers works full time for the partnership and Singh works part time. As a result, the partners agree to a fixed ratio of 0.75:0.25 to share the net income.

Selecting a ratio based on capital balances may be the most logical basis when the capital investment is the most important factor to a partnership. These types of ratios are also appropriate when the partners hire managers to run the partnership in their place and do not take an active role in daily operations. The last three approaches on the list recognize differences among partners based upon factors such as time spent on the business or funds invested in it.

Salaries and interest paid to partners are considered expenses of the partnership and therefore deducted prior to income distribution. Partners are not considered employees or creditors of the partnership, but these transactions affect their capital accounts and the net income of the partnership.

Let’s return to the partnership with Dale and Ciara to see how income and salaries can affect the split of net income (Figure 15.3). Acorn Lawn & Hardscapes reports net income of $68,000. The partnership agreement has defined an income sharing ratio, which provides for salaries of $15,000 to Dale and $10,000 to Ciara. They will share in the net income on a 50:50 basis. The calculation for income sharing between the partners is as follows:

Five columns and five rows. First row, column headings, labeled left to right: blank, Dale, Ciara, Total, Total Remaining. Second row, left to right: Income Realized, blank, blank, $68,000, $68,000. Third row, left to right: Salaries, $15,000, $10,000, ($25,000), $43,000. Fourth row, left to right: Income allocation, 21,500, 21,500, (43,000), 0. Fifth row, left to right: Total Division of Income, $36,500, $31,500, blank, $0.
Figure 15.3 Income Allocation for Acorn Lawn & Hardscapes. (attribution: Copyright Rice University, OpenStax, under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license)

Now, consider the same scenario for Acorn Lawn & Hardscapes, but instead of net income, they realize a net loss of $32,000. The salaries for Dale and Ciara remain the same. Also, the distribution process for allocating a loss is the same as the allocation process for distributing a gain, as demonstrated above. The partners will share in the net loss on a 50:50 basis. The calculation for the sharing of the loss between the partners is shown in Figure 15.4

Five columns and five rows. First row, column headings, labeled left to right: blank, Dale, Ciara, Total, Total Remaining. Second row, left to right: Loss Realized, blank, blank, ($32,000), ($32,000). Third row, left to right: Salaries, $15,000, $10,000, ($25,000), ($57,000). Fourth row, left to right: Income allocation, (28,500), (28,500), (57,000), 0. Fifth row, left to right: Total Division of Income, ($13,500), ($18,500), blank, $0.
Figure 15.4 Loss sharing Allocation for Acorn Lawn & Hardscapes. (attribution: Copyright Rice University, OpenStax, under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license)

Concepts In Practice

Spidell and Diaz: A Partnership

For several years, Theo Spidell has operated a consulting company as a sole proprietor. On January 1, 2017 he formed a partnership with Juanita Diaz called Insect Management.

The facts are as follows:

  • Spidell was to transfer the cash, accounts receivable, furniture and equipment, and all the liabilities of the sole proprietorship in return for 60% of the partnership capital.
  • The fair market value in the relevant accounts of the sole proprietorship at the close of business on December 31, 2016 are shown in Figure 15.5.
Cash $52,000; Accounts receivable, 120,000; Furniture and equipment 34,000; Accounts payable 10,000.
Figure 15.5 Fair Market Values of Sole Proprietorship. (attribution: Copyright Rice University, OpenStax, under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license)
  • In exchange for 40% of the partnership, Diaz will invest $130,667 in cash.
  • Each partner will be paid a salary – Spidell $3,000 per month and Diaz $2,000 per month.
  • The partnership’s net income for 2016 was $300,000. The partnership agreement dictates an income-sharing ratio.
  • Assume that all allocations are 60% Spidell and 40% Diaz.

Record the following transactions as journal entries in the partnership’s records.

  1. Receipt of assets and liabilities from Spidell
  2. Investment of cash by Diaz
  3. Profit or loss allocation including salary allowances and the closing balance in the Income Section account

Think It Through

Sharing Profits and Losses in a Partnership

Michael Wingra has operated a very successful hair salon for the past 7 years. It is almost too successful because Michael does not have any free time. One of his best customers, Jesse Tyree, would like to get involved, and they have had several conversations about forming a partnership. They have asked you to provide some guidance about how to share in the profits and losses.

Michael plans to contribute the assets from his salon, which have been appraised at $500,000.

Jesse will invest cash of $300,000. Michael will work full time at the salon and Jesse will work part time. Assume the salon will earn a profit of $120,000.

Instructions:

  1. What division of profits would you recommend to Michael and Jesse?
  2. Using your recommendation, prepare a schedule sharing the net income.
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