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Principles of Finance

8.4 Stated versus Effective Rates

Principles of Finance8.4 Stated versus Effective Rates

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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction to Finance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 1.1 What Is Finance?
    3. 1.2 The Role of Finance in an Organization
    4. 1.3 Importance of Data and Technology
    5. 1.4 Careers in Finance
    6. 1.5 Markets and Participants
    7. 1.6 Microeconomic and Macroeconomic Matters
    8. 1.7 Financial Instruments
    9. 1.8 Concepts of Time and Value
    10. Summary
    11. Key Terms
    12. Multiple Choice
    13. Review Questions
    14. Video Activity
  3. 2 Corporate Structure and Governance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 2.1 Business Structures
    3. 2.2 Relationship between Shareholders and Company Management
    4. 2.3 Role of the Board of Directors
    5. 2.4 Agency Issues: Shareholders and Corporate Boards
    6. 2.5 Interacting with Investors, Intermediaries, and Other Market Participants
    7. 2.6 Companies in Domestic and Global Markets
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Video Activity
  4. 3 Economic Foundations: Money and Rates
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 3.1 Microeconomics
    3. 3.2 Macroeconomics
    4. 3.3 Business Cycles and Economic Activity
    5. 3.4 Interest Rates
    6. 3.5 Foreign Exchange Rates
    7. 3.6 Sources and Characteristics of Economic Data
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  5. 4 Accrual Accounting Process
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 4.1 Cash versus Accrual Accounting
    3. 4.2 Economic Basis for Accrual Accounting
    4. 4.3 How Does a Company Recognize a Sale and an Expense?
    5. 4.4 When Should a Company Capitalize or Expense an Item?
    6. 4.5 What Is “Profit” versus “Loss” for the Company?
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  6. 5 Financial Statements
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 5.1 The Income Statement
    3. 5.2 The Balance Sheet
    4. 5.3 The Relationship between the Balance Sheet and the Income Statement
    5. 5.4 The Statement of Owner’s Equity
    6. 5.5 The Statement of Cash Flows
    7. 5.6 Operating Cash Flow and Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF)
    8. 5.7 Common-Size Statements
    9. 5.8 Reporting Financial Activity
    10. Summary
    11. Key Terms
    12. CFA Institute
    13. Multiple Choice
    14. Review Questions
    15. Problems
    16. Video Activity
  7. 6 Measures of Financial Health
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 6.1 Ratios: Condensing Information into Smaller Pieces
    3. 6.2 Operating Efficiency Ratios
    4. 6.3 Liquidity Ratios
    5. 6.4 Solvency Ratios
    6. 6.5 Market Value Ratios
    7. 6.6 Profitability Ratios and the DuPont Method
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  8. 7 Time Value of Money I: Single Payment Value
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 7.1 Now versus Later Concepts
    3. 7.2 Time Value of Money (TVM) Basics
    4. 7.3 Methods for Solving Time Value of Money Problems
    5. 7.4 Applications of TVM in Finance
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. CFA Institute
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  9. 8 Time Value of Money II: Equal Multiple Payments
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 8.1 Perpetuities
    3. 8.2 Annuities
    4. 8.3 Loan Amortization
    5. 8.4 Stated versus Effective Rates
    6. 8.5 Equal Payments with a Financial Calculator and Excel
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  10. 9 Time Value of Money III: Unequal Multiple Payment Values
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 9.1 Timing of Cash Flows
    3. 9.2 Unequal Payments Using a Financial Calculator or Microsoft Excel
    4. Summary
    5. Key Terms
    6. CFA Institute
    7. Multiple Choice
    8. Review Questions
    9. Problems
    10. Video Activity
  11. 10 Bonds and Bond Valuation
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 10.1 Characteristics of Bonds
    3. 10.2 Bond Valuation
    4. 10.3 Using the Yield Curve
    5. 10.4 Risks of Interest Rates and Default
    6. 10.5 Using Spreadsheets to Solve Bond Problems
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  12. 11 Stocks and Stock Valuation
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 11.1 Multiple Approaches to Stock Valuation
    3. 11.2 Dividend Discount Models (DDMs)
    4. 11.3 Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Model
    5. 11.4 Preferred Stock
    6. 11.5 Efficient Markets
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  13. 12 Historical Performance of US Markets
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 12.1 Overview of US Financial Markets
    3. 12.2 Historical Picture of Inflation
    4. 12.3 Historical Picture of Returns to Bonds
    5. 12.4 Historical Picture of Returns to Stocks
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Review Questions
    10. Video Activity
  14. 13 Statistical Analysis in Finance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 13.1 Measures of Center
    3. 13.2 Measures of Spread
    4. 13.3 Measures of Position
    5. 13.4 Statistical Distributions
    6. 13.5 Probability Distributions
    7. 13.6 Data Visualization and Graphical Displays
    8. 13.7 The R Statistical Analysis Tool
    9. Summary
    10. Key Terms
    11. CFA Institute
    12. Multiple Choice
    13. Review Questions
    14. Problems
    15. Video Activity
  15. 14 Regression Analysis in Finance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 14.1 Correlation Analysis
    3. 14.2 Linear Regression Analysis
    4. 14.3 Best-Fit Linear Model
    5. 14.4 Regression Applications in Finance
    6. 14.5 Predictions and Prediction Intervals
    7. 14.6 Use of R Statistical Analysis Tool for Regression Analysis
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  16. 15 How to Think about Investing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 15.1 Risk and Return to an Individual Asset
    3. 15.2 Risk and Return to Multiple Assets
    4. 15.3 The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)
    5. 15.4 Applications in Performance Measurement
    6. 15.5 Using Excel to Make Investment Decisions
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  17. 16 How Companies Think about Investing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 16.1 Payback Period Method
    3. 16.2 Net Present Value (NPV) Method
    4. 16.3 Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Method
    5. 16.4 Alternative Methods
    6. 16.5 Choosing between Projects
    7. 16.6 Using Excel to Make Company Investment Decisions
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  18. 17 How Firms Raise Capital
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 17.1 The Concept of Capital Structure
    3. 17.2 The Costs of Debt and Equity Capital
    4. 17.3 Calculating the Weighted Average Cost of Capital
    5. 17.4 Capital Structure Choices
    6. 17.5 Optimal Capital Structure
    7. 17.6 Alternative Sources of Funds
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  19. 18 Financial Forecasting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 18.1 The Importance of Forecasting
    3. 18.2 Forecasting Sales
    4. 18.3 Pro Forma Financials
    5. 18.4 Generating the Complete Forecast
    6. 18.5 Forecasting Cash Flow and Assessing the Value of Growth
    7. 18.6 Using Excel to Create the Long-Term Forecast
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  20. 19 The Importance of Trade Credit and Working Capital in Planning
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 19.1 What Is Working Capital?
    3. 19.2 What Is Trade Credit?
    4. 19.3 Cash Management
    5. 19.4 Receivables Management
    6. 19.5 Inventory Management
    7. 19.6 Using Excel to Create the Short-Term Plan
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Video Activity
  21. 20 Risk Management and the Financial Manager
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 20.1 The Importance of Risk Management
    3. 20.2 Commodity Price Risk
    4. 20.3 Exchange Rates and Risk
    5. 20.4 Interest Rate Risk
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. CFA Institute
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  22. Index

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Explain the difference between stated and effective rates.
  • Calculate the true cost of borrowing.

The Difference between Stated and Effective Rates

If you look at the bottom of your monthly credit card statement, you could see language such as “The interest rate on unpaid balances is 1.5% per month.” You might think to yourself, “So, that’s 12 months times 1.5%, or 18% per year.” This is a fine example of the difference between stated and effective annual interest rates. The effective interest rate reflects compounding within a one-year period, an important distinction because we tend to focus on annual interest rates. Because compounding occurs more than once per year, the true annual rate is higher than appears. Please remember that if interest is calculated and compounded annually, the stated and effective interest rates will be the same. Keep in mind that the following principles work whether you are the debtor paying off an obligation or an investor hoping for more frequent compounding. The dynamics of the time value of money apply in either direction.

Effective Rates and Period of Compounding

Let’s remain with our example of a credit card statement that indicates an interest rate of 1.5% per month on unpaid balances. If you use this card only once, to make a $1,000 purchase in January, and then fail to pay the bill when it comes due, the issuer will bill you $15. Now you owe them $1,015. Assume you completely ignore this bill and never pay it throughout the rest of the year. The monthly calculation of interest starts to compound on past interest assessments in addition to the $1,000 initial purchase (see Table 8.6).

Month Interest Balance
    1,000.00
1 15.00 1,015.00
2 15.23 1,030.23
3 15.45 1,045.69
4 15.69 1,061.36
5 15.92 1.077.28
6 16.16 1,093.44
7 16.40 1,109.84
8 16.65 1,126.49
9 16.90 1,143.39
10 17.15 1,160.54
11 17.41 1,177.95
12 17.67 1,195.62
Table 8.6 Compounded Interest on a Credit Card Statement ($)

Because interest compounds monthly rather than annually, the effective annual rate is 19.56%, not the intuitive rate of the stated 1.5% times 12 months, or 18%. Our basic compounding formula of (1+i)^n by substitution shows:

(1+0.015)12=1.19562(1+0.015)12=1.19562

To isolate the effective annual rate, we then deduct 1 because our interest calculations are based on the value of $1:

(1+0.015)121=1.195621=0.19562=19.562%(1+0.015)121=1.195621=0.19562=19.562%

Therefore, it falls to the consumer/borrower to understand the true cost of borrowing, especially when larger dollar amounts are involved. If we had been dealing with $10,000 rather than $1,000, the annual difference would be more than $156.

One example of the importance of understanding effective interest rates is an invention from the early 1990s: the payday advance loan (PAL). The practice of offering such loans can be controversial because it can lead to very high rates of interest, perhaps even illegally high, in an act known as usury. Although some states have outlawed PALs and others place limits on them, some do not. A PAL is a short-term loan in anticipation of a person’s next paycheck. A person in need of money for short-term needs will write a check on Thursday but date the check next Thursday, which is their normal payday; assume this transaction is for $200. The lender, typically operating from a storefront, will advance the $200 cash and hold the postdated check. The lender charges a fee—let’s say $14—as their compensation. The following Thursday, the borrower is expected to pay off the advance, and if they do not, the lender can deposit the postdated check. If that check has insufficient funds, more fees and penalties will likely be assessed.

One primary reason that arrangements such as these are controversial is the excessively high nominal (stated) interest rate that they can represent. For a one-week loan of $200, the borrower is paying $14, or 7% of the borrowed amount. If this is annualized, with 52 seven-day periods in a year, the stated rate is 364%! While a PAL might seem to be an effective immediate solution to a cash shortfall, the mathematics behind the true cost of borrowing simply do not make sense, and a person who uses such arrangements regularly is placing themselves at a dreadful financial disadvantage.

Think It Through

How Tempting Is That Refund Anticipation?

Refund anticipation loans (RALs) began in 1987, and they are still available (though not from banks) and used by millions of people.1 Now, RALs come from private lending chains. These loans allow you to determine your April 15 personal income tax liability through a preparer and receive an advance against your expected refund.2 But beware: your ability to analyze the true cost of money is always critical. Like all loans, RALs bear a rate of interest. Let’s assume that the firm that prepared your tax return determines that you’re entitled to an $800 refund. Once they advance that amount to you, it will bear interest at a certain rate; we’ll assume 0.5% per week. You might expect a tax refund in four weeks. Half a percent of $800 doesn’t sound like much, but what happens when you annualize it into an effective rate, assuming your tax refund arrives exactly four weeks from when you accept the loan? Assume no compounding during those four weeks.

Footnotes

  • 1Michelle Singletary. “Another Reason Not to Opt for a Tax Refund Loan: It May Delay Your Next Stimulus Payment.” Washington Post, February 16, 2021. https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2021/02/16/tax-refund-loan-problems/
  • 2Amelia Josephson. “What Is a Refund Anticipation Loan?” SmartAsset. March 18, 2021. https://smartasset.com/taxes/what-is-a-refund-anticipation-loan
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