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Principles of Finance

7.2 Time Value of Money (TVM) Basics

Principles of Finance7.2 Time Value of Money (TVM) Basics

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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction to Finance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 1.1 What Is Finance?
    3. 1.2 The Role of Finance in an Organization
    4. 1.3 Importance of Data and Technology
    5. 1.4 Careers in Finance
    6. 1.5 Markets and Participants
    7. 1.6 Microeconomic and Macroeconomic Matters
    8. 1.7 Financial Instruments
    9. 1.8 Concepts of Time and Value
    10. Summary
    11. Key Terms
    12. Multiple Choice
    13. Review Questions
    14. Video Activity
  3. 2 Corporate Structure and Governance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 2.1 Business Structures
    3. 2.2 Relationship between Shareholders and Company Management
    4. 2.3 Role of the Board of Directors
    5. 2.4 Agency Issues: Shareholders and Corporate Boards
    6. 2.5 Interacting with Investors, Intermediaries, and Other Market Participants
    7. 2.6 Companies in Domestic and Global Markets
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Video Activity
  4. 3 Economic Foundations: Money and Rates
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 3.1 Microeconomics
    3. 3.2 Macroeconomics
    4. 3.3 Business Cycles and Economic Activity
    5. 3.4 Interest Rates
    6. 3.5 Foreign Exchange Rates
    7. 3.6 Sources and Characteristics of Economic Data
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  5. 4 Accrual Accounting Process
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 4.1 Cash versus Accrual Accounting
    3. 4.2 Economic Basis for Accrual Accounting
    4. 4.3 How Does a Company Recognize a Sale and an Expense?
    5. 4.4 When Should a Company Capitalize or Expense an Item?
    6. 4.5 What Is “Profit” versus “Loss” for the Company?
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  6. 5 Financial Statements
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 5.1 The Income Statement
    3. 5.2 The Balance Sheet
    4. 5.3 The Relationship between the Balance Sheet and the Income Statement
    5. 5.4 The Statement of Owner’s Equity
    6. 5.5 The Statement of Cash Flows
    7. 5.6 Operating Cash Flow and Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF)
    8. 5.7 Common-Size Statements
    9. 5.8 Reporting Financial Activity
    10. Summary
    11. Key Terms
    12. CFA Institute
    13. Multiple Choice
    14. Review Questions
    15. Problems
    16. Video Activity
  7. 6 Measures of Financial Health
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 6.1 Ratios: Condensing Information into Smaller Pieces
    3. 6.2 Operating Efficiency Ratios
    4. 6.3 Liquidity Ratios
    5. 6.4 Solvency Ratios
    6. 6.5 Market Value Ratios
    7. 6.6 Profitability Ratios and the DuPont Method
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  8. 7 Time Value of Money I: Single Payment Value
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 7.1 Now versus Later Concepts
    3. 7.2 Time Value of Money (TVM) Basics
    4. 7.3 Methods for Solving Time Value of Money Problems
    5. 7.4 Applications of TVM in Finance
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. CFA Institute
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  9. 8 Time Value of Money II: Equal Multiple Payments
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 8.1 Perpetuities
    3. 8.2 Annuities
    4. 8.3 Loan Amortization
    5. 8.4 Stated versus Effective Rates
    6. 8.5 Equal Payments with a Financial Calculator and Excel
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  10. 9 Time Value of Money III: Unequal Multiple Payment Values
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 9.1 Timing of Cash Flows
    3. 9.2 Unequal Payments Using a Financial Calculator or Microsoft Excel
    4. Summary
    5. Key Terms
    6. CFA Institute
    7. Multiple Choice
    8. Review Questions
    9. Problems
    10. Video Activity
  11. 10 Bonds and Bond Valuation
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 10.1 Characteristics of Bonds
    3. 10.2 Bond Valuation
    4. 10.3 Using the Yield Curve
    5. 10.4 Risks of Interest Rates and Default
    6. 10.5 Using Spreadsheets to Solve Bond Problems
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  12. 11 Stocks and Stock Valuation
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 11.1 Multiple Approaches to Stock Valuation
    3. 11.2 Dividend Discount Models (DDMs)
    4. 11.3 Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Model
    5. 11.4 Preferred Stock
    6. 11.5 Efficient Markets
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  13. 12 Historical Performance of US Markets
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 12.1 Overview of US Financial Markets
    3. 12.2 Historical Picture of Inflation
    4. 12.3 Historical Picture of Returns to Bonds
    5. 12.4 Historical Picture of Returns to Stocks
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Review Questions
    10. Video Activity
  14. 13 Statistical Analysis in Finance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 13.1 Measures of Center
    3. 13.2 Measures of Spread
    4. 13.3 Measures of Position
    5. 13.4 Statistical Distributions
    6. 13.5 Probability Distributions
    7. 13.6 Data Visualization and Graphical Displays
    8. 13.7 The R Statistical Analysis Tool
    9. Summary
    10. Key Terms
    11. CFA Institute
    12. Multiple Choice
    13. Review Questions
    14. Problems
    15. Video Activity
  15. 14 Regression Analysis in Finance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 14.1 Correlation Analysis
    3. 14.2 Linear Regression Analysis
    4. 14.3 Best-Fit Linear Model
    5. 14.4 Regression Applications in Finance
    6. 14.5 Predictions and Prediction Intervals
    7. 14.6 Use of R Statistical Analysis Tool for Regression Analysis
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  16. 15 How to Think about Investing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 15.1 Risk and Return to an Individual Asset
    3. 15.2 Risk and Return to Multiple Assets
    4. 15.3 The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)
    5. 15.4 Applications in Performance Measurement
    6. 15.5 Using Excel to Make Investment Decisions
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  17. 16 How Companies Think about Investing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 16.1 Payback Period Method
    3. 16.2 Net Present Value (NPV) Method
    4. 16.3 Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Method
    5. 16.4 Alternative Methods
    6. 16.5 Choosing between Projects
    7. 16.6 Using Excel to Make Company Investment Decisions
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  18. 17 How Firms Raise Capital
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 17.1 The Concept of Capital Structure
    3. 17.2 The Costs of Debt and Equity Capital
    4. 17.3 Calculating the Weighted Average Cost of Capital
    5. 17.4 Capital Structure Choices
    6. 17.5 Optimal Capital Structure
    7. 17.6 Alternative Sources of Funds
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  19. 18 Financial Forecasting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 18.1 The Importance of Forecasting
    3. 18.2 Forecasting Sales
    4. 18.3 Pro Forma Financials
    5. 18.4 Generating the Complete Forecast
    6. 18.5 Forecasting Cash Flow and Assessing the Value of Growth
    7. 18.6 Using Excel to Create the Long-Term Forecast
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  20. 19 The Importance of Trade Credit and Working Capital in Planning
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 19.1 What Is Working Capital?
    3. 19.2 What Is Trade Credit?
    4. 19.3 Cash Management
    5. 19.4 Receivables Management
    6. 19.5 Inventory Management
    7. 19.6 Using Excel to Create the Short-Term Plan
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Video Activity
  21. 20 Risk Management and the Financial Manager
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 20.1 The Importance of Risk Management
    3. 20.2 Commodity Price Risk
    4. 20.3 Exchange Rates and Risk
    5. 20.4 Interest Rate Risk
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. CFA Institute
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  22. Index

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Define future value and provide examples.
  • Explain how future dollar amounts are calculated using a single-period scenario.
  • Describe the impact of compounding.

Because we can invest our money in interest-bearing accounts and investments, its value can grow over time as interest income accrues or returns are realized on our investments. This concept is referred to as future value (FV). In short, future value refers to how a specific amount of money today can have greater value tomorrow.

Single-Period Scenario

Let us start with the following example. Your friend is considering putting money in a bank account that will pay 4% interest per year and is particularly interested in knowing how much money they will have one year from now if they deposit $1,000 in this account. Your friend understands that you are studying finance and turns to you for help. By using the TVM principle of future value (FV), you can tell your friend that the answer is $1,040. The additional $40 that will be in the account after one year will be due to interest earned over that time. You can calculate this amount relatively easily by taking the original deposit (also referred to as the principal) of $1,000 and multiplying it by the annual interest rate of 4% for one period (in this case, one year).

Interest Earned = $1,000 × 0.04 = $40.00Interest Earned = $1,000 × 0.04 = $40.00

By taking the interest earned amount of $40 and adding it to the original principal of $1,000, you will arrive at a total value of $1,040 in the bank account at the end of the year. So, the $1,040 one year from today is equal to $1,000 today when working with a 4% earning rate. Therefore, based on the concept of TVM, we can say that $1,040 represents the future value of $1,000 one year from today and at a 4% rate of interest. We will discuss interest rates and their importance in TVM decisions in more detail later in this chapter; for now, we can consider interest rate as a percentage of the principal amount that is earned by the original lender of funds and/or charged to the borrower of these same funds. Following are a few more examples of the single-period scenario.

If a person deposits $300 in an account that pays 5% per year, at the end of one year, they will have

FV = $300 + ($300 × 0.05) = $315FV = $300 + ($300 × 0.05) = $315

If a company has earnings of $2.50 per share and experiences a 10% increase in the following year, the earnings per share in year two are

$2.50 + $2.50 × 0.10=$2.75 per share$2.50 + $2.50 × 0.10=$2.75 per share

If a retail store decides on a 3% price increase for the following year on an item that is currently selling for $50, the new price in the following year will be

$50 + $50 × 0.03 = $51.50$50 + $50 × 0.03 = $51.50

The Impact of Compounding

What would happen if your friend were willing to wait one more year to receive their lump sum payment? What would the future dollar value in their account be after a two-year period? Returning to our earlier example, assume that during the second year, your friend leaves the principal ($1,000) and the earned interest ($40) in the account, thereby reinvesting the entire account balance for another year. The quoted interest rate of 4% reflects the interest the account would earn each year, not over the entire two-year savings period. So, during the second year of savings, the $1,000 deposit and the $40 interest earned during the first year would both earn 4%:

$1,000 × 0.04 + 40 × 0.04=$41.60$1,000 × 0.04 + 40 × 0.04=$41.60

The additional $1.60 is interest on the first year’s interest and reflects the compounding of interest. Compound interest is the term we use to refer to interest income earned in subsequent periods that is based on interest income earned in prior periods. To put it simply, compound interest refers to interest that is earned on interest. Here, it refers to the $1.60 of interest earned in the second year on the $40.00 of interest earned in the first year. Therefore, at the end of two years, the account would have a total value of $1,081.60. This consists of the original principal of $1,000 plus the $40.00 interest income earned in year one and the $41.60 interest income earned in year two.

The amount of money your friend would have in the account at the end of two years, $1,081.60, is referred to as the future value of the original $1,000 amount deposited today in an account that will earn 4% interest every year.

Simple interest applies to year 1 while compound interest or “interest on interest” applies to year 2. This is calculated using the following method:

Year 1:1,000 × 0.04 = 40.00Year 2:1,040 × 0.04 = 41.60Year 1:1,000 × 0.04 = 40.00Year 2:1,040 × 0.04 = 41.60

So, the total amount that would be in the account after two years, at 4% annual interest, would be $1,000 + $40.00 + $41.60 = $1,081.60$1,000 + $40.00 + $41.60 = $1,081.60.

To determine any future value of money in an interest-bearing account, we multiply the principal amount by 1 plus the interest rate for each year the money remains in the account. From this, we can develop the future value formula:

Future Value=Original Deposit × (1 + r) × (1 + r)Future Value=Original Deposit × (1 + r) × (1 + r)

In this formula, the number of times we multiply by (1+r)(1+r) depends entirely on the number of years the money will remain in the bank account, earning interest, before it is withdrawn in a final lump sum distribution paid out from the account at the end of the chosen savings period. The 1 in the formula represents the principal amount, or the original $1,000 deposit, which will be included in the final total lump sum payment when the account is closed and all money is withdrawn at the end of the predetermined savings period.

We can write the above equation in a more condensed mathematical form using time value of money notation, as follows:

FV=Future ValuePV=Present Valuer=Interest Raten=Number of PeriodsFV=Future ValuePV=Present Valuer=Interest Raten=Number of Periods

Using these inputs, we have the following formula:

FV = PV × (1 + r)nFV = PV × (1 + r)n

With this equation, we can calculate the value of the savings account after any number of years. For example, suppose we are considering 3, 10, and 50 years from the original deposit date at the annual 4% interest rate:

3 years:FV = $1,000 × (1.04)3 = $1,000 × 1.12486 = $1,124.8610 years:FV = $1,000 × (1.04)10 = $1,000 × 1.48024 = $1,480.2450 years:FV = $1,000 × (1.04)50 = $1,000 × 7.106683 = $7,106.683 years:FV = $1,000 × (1.04)3 = $1,000 × 1.12486 = $1,124.8610 years:FV = $1,000 × (1.04)10 = $1,000 × 1.48024 = $1,480.2450 years:FV = $1,000 × (1.04)50 = $1,000 × 7.106683 = $7,106.68

How can this savings account have grown to be so large after 50 years? This question is answered by the impact of compounding interest. Every year, the interest earned in previous years will also earn interest along with the initial deposit. This will have the effect of accelerating the growth of the total dollar value of the account.

This is the important effect of the compounding of interest: money grows in larger and larger increments the longer you leave it in an interest-bearing account. In effect, the compounding of interest over time accelerates the growth of money.

In order to determine the FV of any amount of money, it will always be necessary to know the following pieces of information: (1) the principal, initial deposit, or present value (PV); (2) the rate of interest, usually expressed on an annual basis as r; and (3) the number of time periods that the money will remain in the account (n). The interest rate is often referred to as the growth rate, or the annual percentage increase on savings or on an investment. When the rate is raised to the power of the number of periods, the formula (1+r)n(1+r)n will yield a number that is commonly referred to as the future value interest factor (FVIF). As a result of this process, as n (time, or the number of periods) increases, the future value interest factor will increase. Also, as r (interest rate) increases, the FVIF will increases. For these reasons, the future value calculation is directly determined by both the interest rate being used and the total amount of time—specifically, the number of periods—being considered.

Think It Through

Calculating Future Values

Here’s another example of calculating future values in multiple-period scenarios.

On a recent drive, you spotted your dream home, which is currently listed at $400,000. Unfortunately, you are not in a position to buy it right away and will have to wait at least another six years before you can afford it. If house values are appreciating at an annual rate of inflation of 4%, how much will a similar house cost after six years?

How Time Impacts Compounding

We have just seen that time will lead to the growth of our money. As long as the prevailing growth or interest rate of any account we have our money in is positive, the passage of time will have the effect of growing the value of our money. The longer the period of time, the greater the growth and the larger the future value of the money will be. This can be reinforced very clearly with the following example.

Melvin is saving money in an account at a local bank that earns 5% per year. He begins with a deposit in his account of $100 and decides to save his money for exactly one year. He will not be making any further deposits into the account during the year. Melvin will earn5% × $100,5% × $100, or $5, in interest income. Adding this to the original deposit balance of $100 will give him a total of $100 + $5,$100 + $5, or $105, in the account at the end of one year.

Melvin likes this idea and believes he may be able to keep his money in the account for a longer period of time. How much money will he have in his account, without any further deposits, at the end of years two, three, four, and five?

Using the future value formula, the calculation is as follows:

FV = PV × (1+r)nYear 2: FV = $100 × (1+0.05)2=$110.25 Year 3: FV = $100 × (1+0.05)3=$115.76 Year 4: FV = $100 × (1+0.05)4=$121.55 Year 5: FV = $100 × (1+0.05)5=$127.63FV = PV × (1+r)nYear 2: FV = $100 × (1+0.05)2=$110.25 Year 3: FV = $100 × (1+0.05)3=$115.76 Year 4: FV = $100 × (1+0.05)4=$121.55 Year 5: FV = $100 × (1+0.05)5=$127.63

How the Interest Rate Impacts Compounding

Melvin likes the idea of earning more money over time, but he also believes that what he would earn in interest may not be enough for some of the things he plans to buy in the future. His friend suggests finding an account or some form of investment with a greater interest rate than the 5% he can get at his local bank.

Melvin thinks he can leave his money in an account or investment for a total of five years. He found investments that will provide annual returns of 6%, 7%, 10%, and 12%. Using the FV = PV × 1+rnFV = PV × 1+rn formula, we can complete the following calculations for him:

5%: FV = $100 × (1+0.05)5=$127.63 6%: FV = $100 × (1+0.06)5=$133.82 7%: FV = $100 × (1+0.07)5=$140.26 10%: FV = $100 × (1+0.10)5=$161.05 12%: FV = $100 × (1+0.12)5=$176.235%: FV = $100 × (1+0.05)5=$127.63 6%: FV = $100 × (1+0.06)5=$133.82 7%: FV = $100 × (1+0.07)5=$140.26 10%: FV = $100 × (1+0.10)5=$161.05 12%: FV = $100 × (1+0.12)5=$176.23

Again, Melvin likes this information, and he states that he will try to find the highest interest rate available. This makes sense, but it’s important to remember that investments are usually not guaranteed to earn you specific interest rates, or rates of return. Most investments, other than Treasury investments such as Treasury bonds, carry some form of financial risk, either small or large, and the greater the rate of return, the more likely it is that the risk associated with the investment will also be greater. This risk does not have any effect on the future calculations we have just completed, but it an important factor to bear in mind and consider well before moving ahead and putting your money in any investment or financial instrument.

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