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Principles of Finance

5.4 The Statement of Owner’s Equity

Principles of Finance5.4 The Statement of Owner’s Equity

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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction to Finance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 1.1 What Is Finance?
    3. 1.2 The Role of Finance in an Organization
    4. 1.3 Importance of Data and Technology
    5. 1.4 Careers in Finance
    6. 1.5 Markets and Participants
    7. 1.6 Microeconomic and Macroeconomic Matters
    8. 1.7 Financial Instruments
    9. 1.8 Concepts of Time and Value
    10. Summary
    11. Key Terms
    12. Multiple Choice
    13. Review Questions
    14. Video Activity
  3. 2 Corporate Structure and Governance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 2.1 Business Structures
    3. 2.2 Relationship between Shareholders and Company Management
    4. 2.3 Role of the Board of Directors
    5. 2.4 Agency Issues: Shareholders and Corporate Boards
    6. 2.5 Interacting with Investors, Intermediaries, and Other Market Participants
    7. 2.6 Companies in Domestic and Global Markets
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Video Activity
  4. 3 Economic Foundations: Money and Rates
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 3.1 Microeconomics
    3. 3.2 Macroeconomics
    4. 3.3 Business Cycles and Economic Activity
    5. 3.4 Interest Rates
    6. 3.5 Foreign Exchange Rates
    7. 3.6 Sources and Characteristics of Economic Data
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  5. 4 Accrual Accounting Process
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 4.1 Cash versus Accrual Accounting
    3. 4.2 Economic Basis for Accrual Accounting
    4. 4.3 How Does a Company Recognize a Sale and an Expense?
    5. 4.4 When Should a Company Capitalize or Expense an Item?
    6. 4.5 What Is “Profit” versus “Loss” for the Company?
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  6. 5 Financial Statements
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 5.1 The Income Statement
    3. 5.2 The Balance Sheet
    4. 5.3 The Relationship between the Balance Sheet and the Income Statement
    5. 5.4 The Statement of Owner’s Equity
    6. 5.5 The Statement of Cash Flows
    7. 5.6 Operating Cash Flow and Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF)
    8. 5.7 Common-Size Statements
    9. 5.8 Reporting Financial Activity
    10. Summary
    11. Key Terms
    12. CFA Institute
    13. Multiple Choice
    14. Review Questions
    15. Problems
    16. Video Activity
  7. 6 Measures of Financial Health
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 6.1 Ratios: Condensing Information into Smaller Pieces
    3. 6.2 Operating Efficiency Ratios
    4. 6.3 Liquidity Ratios
    5. 6.4 Solvency Ratios
    6. 6.5 Market Value Ratios
    7. 6.6 Profitability Ratios and the DuPont Method
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  8. 7 Time Value of Money I: Single Payment Value
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 7.1 Now versus Later Concepts
    3. 7.2 Time Value of Money (TVM) Basics
    4. 7.3 Methods for Solving Time Value of Money Problems
    5. 7.4 Applications of TVM in Finance
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. CFA Institute
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  9. 8 Time Value of Money II: Equal Multiple Payments
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 8.1 Perpetuities
    3. 8.2 Annuities
    4. 8.3 Loan Amortization
    5. 8.4 Stated versus Effective Rates
    6. 8.5 Equal Payments with a Financial Calculator and Excel
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  10. 9 Time Value of Money III: Unequal Multiple Payment Values
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 9.1 Timing of Cash Flows
    3. 9.2 Unequal Payments Using a Financial Calculator or Microsoft Excel
    4. Summary
    5. Key Terms
    6. CFA Institute
    7. Multiple Choice
    8. Review Questions
    9. Problems
    10. Video Activity
  11. 10 Bonds and Bond Valuation
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 10.1 Characteristics of Bonds
    3. 10.2 Bond Valuation
    4. 10.3 Using the Yield Curve
    5. 10.4 Risks of Interest Rates and Default
    6. 10.5 Using Spreadsheets to Solve Bond Problems
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  12. 11 Stocks and Stock Valuation
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 11.1 Multiple Approaches to Stock Valuation
    3. 11.2 Dividend Discount Models (DDMs)
    4. 11.3 Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Model
    5. 11.4 Preferred Stock
    6. 11.5 Efficient Markets
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  13. 12 Historical Performance of US Markets
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 12.1 Overview of US Financial Markets
    3. 12.2 Historical Picture of Inflation
    4. 12.3 Historical Picture of Returns to Bonds
    5. 12.4 Historical Picture of Returns to Stocks
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Review Questions
    10. Video Activity
  14. 13 Statistical Analysis in Finance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 13.1 Measures of Center
    3. 13.2 Measures of Spread
    4. 13.3 Measures of Position
    5. 13.4 Statistical Distributions
    6. 13.5 Probability Distributions
    7. 13.6 Data Visualization and Graphical Displays
    8. 13.7 The R Statistical Analysis Tool
    9. Summary
    10. Key Terms
    11. CFA Institute
    12. Multiple Choice
    13. Review Questions
    14. Problems
    15. Video Activity
  15. 14 Regression Analysis in Finance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 14.1 Correlation Analysis
    3. 14.2 Linear Regression Analysis
    4. 14.3 Best-Fit Linear Model
    5. 14.4 Regression Applications in Finance
    6. 14.5 Predictions and Prediction Intervals
    7. 14.6 Use of R Statistical Analysis Tool for Regression Analysis
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  16. 15 How to Think about Investing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 15.1 Risk and Return to an Individual Asset
    3. 15.2 Risk and Return to Multiple Assets
    4. 15.3 The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)
    5. 15.4 Applications in Performance Measurement
    6. 15.5 Using Excel to Make Investment Decisions
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  17. 16 How Companies Think about Investing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 16.1 Payback Period Method
    3. 16.2 Net Present Value (NPV) Method
    4. 16.3 Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Method
    5. 16.4 Alternative Methods
    6. 16.5 Choosing between Projects
    7. 16.6 Using Excel to Make Company Investment Decisions
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  18. 17 How Firms Raise Capital
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 17.1 The Concept of Capital Structure
    3. 17.2 The Costs of Debt and Equity Capital
    4. 17.3 Calculating the Weighted Average Cost of Capital
    5. 17.4 Capital Structure Choices
    6. 17.5 Optimal Capital Structure
    7. 17.6 Alternative Sources of Funds
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  19. 18 Financial Forecasting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 18.1 The Importance of Forecasting
    3. 18.2 Forecasting Sales
    4. 18.3 Pro Forma Financials
    5. 18.4 Generating the Complete Forecast
    6. 18.5 Forecasting Cash Flow and Assessing the Value of Growth
    7. 18.6 Using Excel to Create the Long-Term Forecast
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  20. 19 The Importance of Trade Credit and Working Capital in Planning
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 19.1 What Is Working Capital?
    3. 19.2 What Is Trade Credit?
    4. 19.3 Cash Management
    5. 19.4 Receivables Management
    6. 19.5 Inventory Management
    7. 19.6 Using Excel to Create the Short-Term Plan
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Video Activity
  21. 20 Risk Management and the Financial Manager
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 20.1 The Importance of Risk Management
    3. 20.2 Commodity Price Risk
    4. 20.3 Exchange Rates and Risk
    5. 20.4 Interest Rate Risk
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. CFA Institute
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  22. Index

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Explain the concept of owner’s equity.
  • Outline the purpose and importance of the statement of owner’s equity.
  • Identify the structure and key elements of the statement of owner’s equity.

What Is Equity?

Recall that the accounting equation can help us see what is owned (assets), who is owed (liabilities), and finally who the owners are (equity). The statement of owner’s equity addresses the last segment of the accounting equation in detail by laying out the equity elements of the firm and highlighting changes in these elements throughout the period.

Equity represents the ownership of the firm. The stockholders’ equity section of the balance sheet for corporations contains two primary categories of accounts. The first is paid-in capital or contributed capital—consisting of amounts paid in by owners. The second category is earned capital, consisting of amounts earned by the corporation as part of business operations. On the balance sheet, retained earnings is a key component of the earned capital section, while the stock accounts such as common stock, preferred stock, and additional paid-in capital are the primary components of the contributed capital section.

Common stock represents ownership in the firm. Common stockholders normally have voting rights. Preferred stock has unique rights that are “preferred,” or more advantageous, to shareholders than common stock. Unlike common stockholders, preferred shareholders typically do not have voting rights and do not share in the common stock dividend distributions. Instead, the “preferred” classification entitles shareholders to a dividend that is fixed (assuming sufficient dividends are declared). Treasury stock is shares that were outstanding and have been repurchased by the firm but not retired. Thus they are still issued, but not outstanding. Additional paid-in capital is the difference between the issue price and par value of the common stock. For example, if a firm issued and sold stock at a market price of $20 that had a $5 par value, $5 for each share would be recorded into common stock and the excess $15 per share would be recorded into the additional paid-in capital account.

If we review the balance sheet for Clear Lake Sporting Goods, we see just two elements of equity: common stock and retained earnings. Common stock in the prior year was $75,000 and increased to $80,000 in the current year, indicating Clear Lake issued additional common stock (see Figure 5.13).

Clear Lake Sporting Goods’ Stockholder Equity Section of Balance Sheet. The total liabilities and stockholder equity has grown from $200,000 in the previous year to $250,000 in the current year.
Figure 5.13 Stockholder Equity Section of Balance Sheet

Think It Through

Equity Accounts

Visit the Apple, Inc. Annual Report for 2020 and locate the company’s balance sheet (it begins on page 33). What types of equity accounts does it report?

Distributions to Owners

When firms earn a profit, they have two options as to what to do with their earnings. They can keep (retain) them and reinvest them back into the business, or they can pay them out to their shareholders in the form of dividends. Dividends are commonly in the form of cash, but dividends can be paid out in the form of stock or other assets as well.

To pay a cash dividend, the firm must have enough cash on hand and sufficient retained earnings. They cannot pay out a dividend beyond the retained earnings available. Some companies issue shares of stock as a dividend rather than cash or property. This often occurs when the company has insufficient cash but wants to keep its investors happy. When a company issues a stock dividend, it distributes additional shares of stock to existing shareholders.

A property dividend occurs when the firm pays out dividends in the form of something other than stock or cash, often one of their assets or something they hold in inventory. For example, Walt Disney Company may choose to distribute tickets to visit its theme parks. A property dividend may be declared when a company wants to reward its investors but doesn’t have the cash to distribute, or if it needs to hold on to its existing cash for other investments.

Remember, the retained earnings account reflects the cumulative earnings of a firm since they began business, less dividends paid out to shareholders. This includes all forms of dividends (cash, stock, and other assets). Note that dividends are distributed or paid only to shares of stock that are outstanding. Treasury shares are not outstanding, so no dividends are declared or distributed for these shares. Regardless of the type of dividend, the declaration always causes a decrease in the retained earnings account.

Think It Through

Dividends

Visit the Apple, Inc. Annual Report for 2020. Review the notes to the financial statements found on pages 19 and 20. What kind of dividends did the company pay (cash, property, stock)? Review the notes regarding dividends on page 26. What does Apple intend to do regarding dividends in the future, pending board approval?

Elements of the Statement of Owner’s Equity

Now that we have covered the basic elements of equity and know what dividends are, we have the basic pieces we need to create the statement of owner’s equity. The statement is broken out into columns, one for each element of equity: common stock, preferred stock, additional paid-in capital, retained earnings, and treasury stock.

The first line of the statement provides the balance of each segment as of the first day of the period. Each following line provides information on any events during the period that changed the value of any of the accounts. Common examples of events found on the statement include net income or loss for the period, issuing common or preferred stock, purchasing or selling treasury stock, and declaring a dividend.

Clear Lake Sporting Goods has just common stock and retained earnings to report in their statement of owner’s equity. They had just two events to report in their statement that impacted their equity accounts; they reported net income and they issued dividends (see Figure 5.14).

Statement of Stockholder Equity for Clear Lake Sporting Goods. For common stock, the statement shows a beginning balance of $75,000. There is no net income or dividends paid to shareholders for common stock, but an additional $5,000 of common stock was issued. The ending balance of $80,000 is calculated by adding the amounts for beginning balance and common stock issued. Clear Lake Sporting Goods has no additional paid-in-capital. For retained earnings, the beginning balance is $15,000. Net income is $35,000 and $30,000 in dividends were paid to shareholders. To calculate the ending balance of $20,000 for retained earnings, add the amounts for the beginning balance and net income and then subtract the amount of dividends paid to shareholders. Clear Lake Sorting Goods has no Treasury Stock. Totals for each line item – beginning balance, net income, dividends paid to shareholders, common stock issued, and ending balance – are calculated. The total ending balance on this statement is $100,000.
Figure 5.14 Statement of Stockholder Equity for Clear Lake Sporting Goods
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