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Principles of Finance

5.1 The Income Statement

Principles of Finance5.1 The Income Statement

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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction to Finance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 1.1 What Is Finance?
    3. 1.2 The Role of Finance in an Organization
    4. 1.3 Importance of Data and Technology
    5. 1.4 Careers in Finance
    6. 1.5 Markets and Participants
    7. 1.6 Microeconomic and Macroeconomic Matters
    8. 1.7 Financial Instruments
    9. 1.8 Concepts of Time and Value
    10. Summary
    11. Key Terms
    12. Multiple Choice
    13. Review Questions
    14. Video Activity
  3. 2 Corporate Structure and Governance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 2.1 Business Structures
    3. 2.2 Relationship between Shareholders and Company Management
    4. 2.3 Role of the Board of Directors
    5. 2.4 Agency Issues: Shareholders and Corporate Boards
    6. 2.5 Interacting with Investors, Intermediaries, and Other Market Participants
    7. 2.6 Companies in Domestic and Global Markets
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Video Activity
  4. 3 Economic Foundations: Money and Rates
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 3.1 Microeconomics
    3. 3.2 Macroeconomics
    4. 3.3 Business Cycles and Economic Activity
    5. 3.4 Interest Rates
    6. 3.5 Foreign Exchange Rates
    7. 3.6 Sources and Characteristics of Economic Data
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  5. 4 Accrual Accounting Process
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 4.1 Cash versus Accrual Accounting
    3. 4.2 Economic Basis for Accrual Accounting
    4. 4.3 How Does a Company Recognize a Sale and an Expense?
    5. 4.4 When Should a Company Capitalize or Expense an Item?
    6. 4.5 What Is “Profit” versus “Loss” for the Company?
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  6. 5 Financial Statements
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 5.1 The Income Statement
    3. 5.2 The Balance Sheet
    4. 5.3 The Relationship between the Balance Sheet and the Income Statement
    5. 5.4 The Statement of Owner’s Equity
    6. 5.5 The Statement of Cash Flows
    7. 5.6 Operating Cash Flow and Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF)
    8. 5.7 Common-Size Statements
    9. 5.8 Reporting Financial Activity
    10. Summary
    11. Key Terms
    12. CFA Institute
    13. Multiple Choice
    14. Review Questions
    15. Problems
    16. Video Activity
  7. 6 Measures of Financial Health
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 6.1 Ratios: Condensing Information into Smaller Pieces
    3. 6.2 Operating Efficiency Ratios
    4. 6.3 Liquidity Ratios
    5. 6.4 Solvency Ratios
    6. 6.5 Market Value Ratios
    7. 6.6 Profitability Ratios and the DuPont Method
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  8. 7 Time Value of Money I: Single Payment Value
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 7.1 Now versus Later Concepts
    3. 7.2 Time Value of Money (TVM) Basics
    4. 7.3 Methods for Solving Time Value of Money Problems
    5. 7.4 Applications of TVM in Finance
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. CFA Institute
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  9. 8 Time Value of Money II: Equal Multiple Payments
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 8.1 Perpetuities
    3. 8.2 Annuities
    4. 8.3 Loan Amortization
    5. 8.4 Stated versus Effective Rates
    6. 8.5 Equal Payments with a Financial Calculator and Excel
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  10. 9 Time Value of Money III: Unequal Multiple Payment Values
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 9.1 Timing of Cash Flows
    3. 9.2 Unequal Payments Using a Financial Calculator or Microsoft Excel
    4. Summary
    5. Key Terms
    6. CFA Institute
    7. Multiple Choice
    8. Review Questions
    9. Problems
    10. Video Activity
  11. 10 Bonds and Bond Valuation
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 10.1 Characteristics of Bonds
    3. 10.2 Bond Valuation
    4. 10.3 Using the Yield Curve
    5. 10.4 Risks of Interest Rates and Default
    6. 10.5 Using Spreadsheets to Solve Bond Problems
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  12. 11 Stocks and Stock Valuation
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 11.1 Multiple Approaches to Stock Valuation
    3. 11.2 Dividend Discount Models (DDMs)
    4. 11.3 Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Model
    5. 11.4 Preferred Stock
    6. 11.5 Efficient Markets
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  13. 12 Historical Performance of US Markets
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 12.1 Overview of US Financial Markets
    3. 12.2 Historical Picture of Inflation
    4. 12.3 Historical Picture of Returns to Bonds
    5. 12.4 Historical Picture of Returns to Stocks
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Review Questions
    10. Video Activity
  14. 13 Statistical Analysis in Finance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 13.1 Measures of Center
    3. 13.2 Measures of Spread
    4. 13.3 Measures of Position
    5. 13.4 Statistical Distributions
    6. 13.5 Probability Distributions
    7. 13.6 Data Visualization and Graphical Displays
    8. 13.7 The R Statistical Analysis Tool
    9. Summary
    10. Key Terms
    11. CFA Institute
    12. Multiple Choice
    13. Review Questions
    14. Problems
    15. Video Activity
  15. 14 Regression Analysis in Finance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 14.1 Correlation Analysis
    3. 14.2 Linear Regression Analysis
    4. 14.3 Best-Fit Linear Model
    5. 14.4 Regression Applications in Finance
    6. 14.5 Predictions and Prediction Intervals
    7. 14.6 Use of R Statistical Analysis Tool for Regression Analysis
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  16. 15 How to Think about Investing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 15.1 Risk and Return to an Individual Asset
    3. 15.2 Risk and Return to Multiple Assets
    4. 15.3 The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)
    5. 15.4 Applications in Performance Measurement
    6. 15.5 Using Excel to Make Investment Decisions
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  17. 16 How Companies Think about Investing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 16.1 Payback Period Method
    3. 16.2 Net Present Value (NPV) Method
    4. 16.3 Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Method
    5. 16.4 Alternative Methods
    6. 16.5 Choosing between Projects
    7. 16.6 Using Excel to Make Company Investment Decisions
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  18. 17 How Firms Raise Capital
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 17.1 The Concept of Capital Structure
    3. 17.2 The Costs of Debt and Equity Capital
    4. 17.3 Calculating the Weighted Average Cost of Capital
    5. 17.4 Capital Structure Choices
    6. 17.5 Optimal Capital Structure
    7. 17.6 Alternative Sources of Funds
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  19. 18 Financial Forecasting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 18.1 The Importance of Forecasting
    3. 18.2 Forecasting Sales
    4. 18.3 Pro Forma Financials
    5. 18.4 Generating the Complete Forecast
    6. 18.5 Forecasting Cash Flow and Assessing the Value of Growth
    7. 18.6 Using Excel to Create the Long-Term Forecast
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  20. 19 The Importance of Trade Credit and Working Capital in Planning
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 19.1 What Is Working Capital?
    3. 19.2 What Is Trade Credit?
    4. 19.3 Cash Management
    5. 19.4 Receivables Management
    6. 19.5 Inventory Management
    7. 19.6 Using Excel to Create the Short-Term Plan
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Video Activity
  21. 20 Risk Management and the Financial Manager
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 20.1 The Importance of Risk Management
    3. 20.2 Commodity Price Risk
    4. 20.3 Exchange Rates and Risk
    5. 20.4 Interest Rate Risk
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. CFA Institute
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  22. Index

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Outline the purpose and importance of the income statement.
  • Identify the structure and key elements of the income statement.
  • Discuss the use of EBITDA as a measure of a company’s profit.

Financial information flows from one financial statement to the next. Thus, the statements are prepared in a specific order. The first statement prepared is the income statement.

Functionality of the Income Statement

The income statement shows a firm’s performance over a specific period of time. The statement helps financial statement users understand the sales generated during the period and the expenses incurred to generate those sales. If the expenses are smaller than the sales, the net result is profitability, or net income, rather than a net loss.

Breaking the income statement down into smaller pieces provides a more transparent view of the firm’s performance, allowing users to see more clearly what areas of the business incurred expenses. This is helpful to management in driving improvements and to outside users in assessing performance.

Sales and Gross Profit

The first section of the income statement begins with sales. Though financial statements are required to follow a certain format, account names can differ slightly from one firm to another. You may see the first line, often referred to as the top line, called sales, sales revenue, revenue, service revenues, and other similar titles. All of these titles are meant to reflect the sales generated by selling product to customers in the day-to-day business. On Clear Lake’s income statement in Figure 5.2, we see its top line referred to as Sales.

Income from items that aren’t common to the firm’s day-to-day business are reported as gains and losses, and they are reported further down in the income statement rather than at the top line with its regular, core business activities. This is to ensure that anomalies like selling a machine or a loss on retiring a bond don’t mislead financial statement users as to the general performance of the firm and impact their assumptions of future results.

Firms report their sales and any reductions to sales separately on the income statement. They begin with gross sales, which includes all sales to customers. Clear Lake reported gross sales of $105,000 last year and $126,000 this year. The next line is sales returns and allowances, which is deducted from gross sales in order to find net sales. Clear Lake’s sales returns and allowances were $5,000 and $6,000 respectively, leaving the company with net sales of $100,000 and $120,000 respectively

($105,000-$5,000 and $126,000-$6,000).($105,000-$5,000 and $126,000-$6,000).

Next, the cost of goods sold (COGS) is deducted from net sales in order to arrive at gross profit. (It is customary to refer to sales minus COGS as gross profit because gross margin == gross profit/sales.) Cost of goods sold includes the costs directly involved in making the product that was sold during the period. Common examples of costs included in cost of goods sold include direct labor, direct materials, and the overhead assigned to the product in production. For a service business, this would include its direct labor and any materials used to deliver its services. For a retail firm like Clear Lake Sporting Goods, this would include the costs of all the goods it purchased for resale. Clear Lake’s COGS is seen at $50,000 and $60,000 for the prior and current years. Note that different types of companies will have different types of costs deducted in their Cost of Goods section. Clear Lake Sporting Goods is a retailer, or merchandiser that buys good to resell. Their cost of goods includes the cost of goods they purchased to resell. In the link to learning, you will explore Apple, a technology manufacturer. Their cost of goods would include the cost to manufacture the goods they sell. Another type of firm is a service firm. A law office, for example, would include primarily the cost of labor in their cost of services.

Gross profit is a reflection of how profitable the firm’s performance was in its core business function. It includes only the core business and direct costs of performing that business. If the company were a shoe company, gross profit would show how profitable the company was in simply making the shoes it sold. If it were a bakery, gross profit would show how profitable the company was in simply baking the goods it sold. Gross profit shows financial statement users how effective the business is at generating top-line profits on their core business function. It does not reflect the performance of other areas of the firm such as other operating costs to support the direct production process, indirect costs, and financing.

For Clear Lake Sporting Goods, we see its gross profit in Figure 5.2. The company earned $50,000 of gross profit ($100,000  $50,000)($100,000  $50,000) the prior year and $60,000 in the current year ($120,000  $60,000)($120,000  $60,000).

Comparative year-end income statements for Clear Lake Sporting Goods through gross profits for the prior and current years. Gross sales, sales returns and allowances, net sales, cost of goods sold, and gross profit are all included on this statement. Net sales are calculated for each year by subtracting sales and returns allowances from gross sales. Gross profit was calculated for each year by subtracting the cost of goods sold from the net sales figure.
Figure 5.2 Income Statement through Gross Profit Line

Income from Operations

Gross profit is a very helpful measure, but it is only the first of several provided by the income statement. After gross profit is calculated, other operating expenses are deducted in order to calculate the firm’s income from operations, also commonly called operating income. Common operating costs found in this section include building rent and utilities, property taxes, wages and salaries, and other overhead costs. In Figure 5.3, we can see Clear Lake’s operating expenses. To sell its hunting and fishing equipment in the current year, Clear Lake Sporting Goods paid rent for its building ($5,500) and utilities for its retail and warehouse spaces ($2,500); recorded depreciation on equipment, buildings, and store furnishings (shelves, racks, etc.) ($3,600); and paid salaries to its indirect employees in accounting, purchasing, and human resources ($5,400). The company’s operating expenses are deducted from gross profit to arrive at operating income

($60,000-5,500-3,600-5,400-2,500=$43,000) . ($60,000-5,500-3,600-5,400-2,500=$43,000) .

While gross profit reflects only how profitable the firm was in making its core product, operating income reflects how profitable the firm’s daily operations were as a whole. This still does not include other miscellaneous items outside the scope of a firm’s normal business. Just as the name implies, it shows income from the core operations of the firm.

Comparative year-end income statements for Clear Lake Sporting Goods through operating income for the prior and current years. Rent, depreciation, salary, and utility expenses have been added to the statement. Operating income is calculated by subtracting these expenses from gross profit.
Figure 5.3 Income Statement through Income from Operations

We can see that the company was able to generate $20,000 ($120,000-$100,000)$20,000 ($120,000-$100,000) more in net sales in the current year than the prior year. However, it only generated $10,000 ($60,000-$50,000)$10,000 ($60,000-$50,000) in gross profit and $5,000 ($43,000-$38,000)$5,000 ($43,000-$38,000) of additional operating income. Further investigation shows that while net sales increased, so did the direct costs of its goods (COGS) and its operating expenses.

We will further explore how to assess each of these expenses later in the chapter using common-size analysis. Common-size analysis reflects each element of a financial statement as a percentage of the base. In the case of the income statement, the base is net sales. Here we would see that COGS was 50 percent of net sales in both the current ($60,000/$120,000)($60,000/$120,000) and prior year ($50,000/$100,000)($50,000/$100,000), indicating there wasn’t any significant change in performance we could detect from the information provided in the income statement.

Net Income

Finally, we move on to net income, or what is commonly referred to as the bottom line. Net income (or loss) reflects the net impact of all financial transactions for the firm, including those that are caused by events outside the normal course of business. The most common items deducted from operating income to arrive at net income include interest expense, gains/losses, and income tax expense. Remember, gains and losses are those that result from unusual transactions outside the normal course of business. Examples include selling a piece of old equipment or a loss on retiring debt.

We can see in Figure 5.4 that Clear Lake Sporting Goods has outstanding debt, so it incurred interest expense of $2,000 in the current year and $3,000 the prior year. Since it recorded net income (not a loss), it must also record income tax expense of $6,000 in the current and $5,000 in the prior year.

Comparative year-end income statements for Clear Lake Sporting Goods through net income for the previous year and current year. Interest and income tax expenses are deducted from the operating income to calculate the net income for Clear Lake Sporting Goods. The figures for depreciation expense, interest expense, income tax expense, and net income are highlighted.
Figure 5.4 Comparative Year-End Income Statement

EBITDA (Earnings before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization)

Now that we have a full income statement, we can look at another commonly used measure of financial performance called EBITDA. EBITDA stands for earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation, and amortization. Amortization is similar to depreciation. It is the spreading of the cost of an intangible asset over the course of its useful life. Intangible assets are long-term assets that lack physical substance, such as patents and copyrights.

Since EBITDA removes noncash items from the net income equation, it is considered a useful measure in assessing the cash flows provided by operating activities. We will assess cash flows using the statement of cash flows and various other cash flow measures later in this chapter as well.

As shown in Figure 5.5, Clear Lake Sporting Goods’ EBITDA in the prior year was

$19,500 ($30,000-$3,000-$5,000-$2,500)$19,500 ($30,000-$3,000-$5,000-$2,500)

and in the current year was

$23,400 ($35,000-$2,000-$6,000-$3,600).$23,400 ($35,000-$2,000-$6,000-$3,600).
Full comparative year-end income statement for Clear Lake Sporting Goods for the prior and current years. The EBITA for Clear Lake Sporting Goods can be calculated using information in this figure. As shown in Figure 5.5, Clear Lake Sporting Goods EBITA in the prior year was $19,500. This is calculated by subtracting the interest expense ($3000), Income tax expense ($5000) and depreciation expense ($2500) from the net income ($30,000). The EBITA for current year was $23,400. This is calculated by subtracting the interest expense ($2000), Income tax expense ($6000) and depreciation expense ($3600) from the net income ($35,000).
Figure 5.5 EBITDA (Earnings before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization)

Think It Through

Net Income

Visit the Apple, Inc. Annual Report for 2020 and locate the company’s income statement (the income statement begins on page 31). Review net income for the last few years. Has it improved or declined? Does this fall in line with your expectations based on your previous review of the company’s operating income?

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