### 11.1 Multiple Approaches to Stock Valuation

This section introduced common stock and some of the models and calculation methods used by investors and financial analysts to determine the prices or values of common shares. The most evaluative ratios that can be computed from a company’s financial statements include the price-to-earnings (P/E), price-to book (P/B), price-to-sales (P/S), and price-to cash-flow (P/CF) ratios.

### 11.2 Dividend Discount Models (DDMs)

The dividend discount model, or DDM, is a method used to value a stock based on the concept that its worth is the present value of all of its future dividends. The most common DDM is the Gordon growth model, which values stock entirely on expected future dividends. Other techniques include the zero growth DDM, which depends on fixed dividends; the constant growth DDM, which assumes that dividends will grow at a constant rate; and the variable growth or nonconstant growth DDM, which is based on the assumption that stock value will progress through different stages of growth. There is also the two-stage DDM, which is based on the assumption of two stages of dividend growth: an initial period of higher growth and a subsequent period of lower, more stable growth.

### 11.3 Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Model

Investors buy stock to receive cash inflows at different points in the future. These inflows may come in the form of dividends or a final cash inflow. If the investor chooses to wait for a final cash flow, the hope is that capital gains will be even stronger. The DCF model is usually used to evaluate firms that are relatively young and do not pay dividends to their shareholders. The DCF model focuses on a company’s cash flows, determining the present value of an entire organization using objective data and then working this down to the share-value level based on total shares outstanding of the subject organization.

### 11.4 Preferred Stock

Preferred stock is a unique form of equity sold by some firms that offers preferential claims in ownership. Preferred stock carries a stated par value, but unlike bonds, there is no maturity date, and consequently, there is no final payment of the par value. The term *preferred* comes from preferred shareholders receiving all past (if cumulative) and present dividends before common shareholders receive any cash dividends.

### 11.5 Efficient Markets

Efficient markets are markets in which costs are minimal and prices are current and fair to all traders. There are two forms of efficiency: operational efficiency and informational efficiency. Operational efficiency concerns the speed and accuracy of processing a buy or sell order at the best available price. Informational efficiency concerns how quickly a source reflects comprehensive information in the available trading prices. Financial economists have devised three forms of efficient markets from an information perspective: weak form, semi-strong form, and strong form.