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Principles of Finance

10.5 Using Spreadsheets to Solve Bond Problems

Principles of Finance10.5 Using Spreadsheets to Solve Bond Problems

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Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction to Finance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 1.1 What Is Finance?
    3. 1.2 The Role of Finance in an Organization
    4. 1.3 Importance of Data and Technology
    5. 1.4 Careers in Finance
    6. 1.5 Markets and Participants
    7. 1.6 Microeconomic and Macroeconomic Matters
    8. 1.7 Financial Instruments
    9. 1.8 Concepts of Time and Value
    10. Summary
    11. Key Terms
    12. Multiple Choice
    13. Review Questions
    14. Video Activity
  3. 2 Corporate Structure and Governance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 2.1 Business Structures
    3. 2.2 Relationship between Shareholders and Company Management
    4. 2.3 Role of the Board of Directors
    5. 2.4 Agency Issues: Shareholders and Corporate Boards
    6. 2.5 Interacting with Investors, Intermediaries, and Other Market Participants
    7. 2.6 Companies in Domestic and Global Markets
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Video Activity
  4. 3 Economic Foundations: Money and Rates
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 3.1 Microeconomics
    3. 3.2 Macroeconomics
    4. 3.3 Business Cycles and Economic Activity
    5. 3.4 Interest Rates
    6. 3.5 Foreign Exchange Rates
    7. 3.6 Sources and Characteristics of Economic Data
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  5. 4 Accrual Accounting Process
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 4.1 Cash versus Accrual Accounting
    3. 4.2 Economic Basis for Accrual Accounting
    4. 4.3 How Does a Company Recognize a Sale and an Expense?
    5. 4.4 When Should a Company Capitalize or Expense an Item?
    6. 4.5 What Is “Profit” versus “Loss” for the Company?
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  6. 5 Financial Statements
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 5.1 The Income Statement
    3. 5.2 The Balance Sheet
    4. 5.3 The Relationship between the Balance Sheet and the Income Statement
    5. 5.4 The Statement of Owner’s Equity
    6. 5.5 The Statement of Cash Flows
    7. 5.6 Operating Cash Flow and Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF)
    8. 5.7 Common-Size Statements
    9. 5.8 Reporting Financial Activity
    10. Summary
    11. Key Terms
    12. CFA Institute
    13. Multiple Choice
    14. Review Questions
    15. Problems
    16. Video Activity
  7. 6 Measures of Financial Health
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 6.1 Ratios: Condensing Information into Smaller Pieces
    3. 6.2 Operating Efficiency Ratios
    4. 6.3 Liquidity Ratios
    5. 6.4 Solvency Ratios
    6. 6.5 Market Value Ratios
    7. 6.6 Profitability Ratios and the DuPont Method
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  8. 7 Time Value of Money I: Single Payment Value
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 7.1 Now versus Later Concepts
    3. 7.2 Time Value of Money (TVM) Basics
    4. 7.3 Methods for Solving Time Value of Money Problems
    5. 7.4 Applications of TVM in Finance
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. CFA Institute
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  9. 8 Time Value of Money II: Equal Multiple Payments
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 8.1 Perpetuities
    3. 8.2 Annuities
    4. 8.3 Loan Amortization
    5. 8.4 Stated versus Effective Rates
    6. 8.5 Equal Payments with a Financial Calculator and Excel
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  10. 9 Time Value of Money III: Unequal Multiple Payment Values
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 9.1 Timing of Cash Flows
    3. 9.2 Unequal Payments Using a Financial Calculator or Microsoft Excel
    4. Summary
    5. Key Terms
    6. CFA Institute
    7. Multiple Choice
    8. Review Questions
    9. Problems
    10. Video Activity
  11. 10 Bonds and Bond Valuation
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 10.1 Characteristics of Bonds
    3. 10.2 Bond Valuation
    4. 10.3 Using the Yield Curve
    5. 10.4 Risks of Interest Rates and Default
    6. 10.5 Using Spreadsheets to Solve Bond Problems
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  12. 11 Stocks and Stock Valuation
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 11.1 Multiple Approaches to Stock Valuation
    3. 11.2 Dividend Discount Models (DDMs)
    4. 11.3 Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Model
    5. 11.4 Preferred Stock
    6. 11.5 Efficient Markets
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  13. 12 Historical Performance of US Markets
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 12.1 Overview of US Financial Markets
    3. 12.2 Historical Picture of Inflation
    4. 12.3 Historical Picture of Returns to Bonds
    5. 12.4 Historical Picture of Returns to Stocks
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Review Questions
    10. Video Activity
  14. 13 Statistical Analysis in Finance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 13.1 Measures of Center
    3. 13.2 Measures of Spread
    4. 13.3 Measures of Position
    5. 13.4 Statistical Distributions
    6. 13.5 Probability Distributions
    7. 13.6 Data Visualization and Graphical Displays
    8. 13.7 The R Statistical Analysis Tool
    9. Summary
    10. Key Terms
    11. CFA Institute
    12. Multiple Choice
    13. Review Questions
    14. Problems
    15. Video Activity
  15. 14 Regression Analysis in Finance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 14.1 Correlation Analysis
    3. 14.2 Linear Regression Analysis
    4. 14.3 Best-Fit Linear Model
    5. 14.4 Regression Applications in Finance
    6. 14.5 Predictions and Prediction Intervals
    7. 14.6 Use of R Statistical Analysis Tool for Regression Analysis
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  16. 15 How to Think about Investing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 15.1 Risk and Return to an Individual Asset
    3. 15.2 Risk and Return to Multiple Assets
    4. 15.3 The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)
    5. 15.4 Applications in Performance Measurement
    6. 15.5 Using Excel to Make Investment Decisions
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  17. 16 How Companies Think about Investing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 16.1 Payback Period Method
    3. 16.2 Net Present Value (NPV) Method
    4. 16.3 Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Method
    5. 16.4 Alternative Methods
    6. 16.5 Choosing between Projects
    7. 16.6 Using Excel to Make Company Investment Decisions
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  18. 17 How Firms Raise Capital
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 17.1 The Concept of Capital Structure
    3. 17.2 The Costs of Debt and Equity Capital
    4. 17.3 Calculating the Weighted Average Cost of Capital
    5. 17.4 Capital Structure Choices
    6. 17.5 Optimal Capital Structure
    7. 17.6 Alternative Sources of Funds
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  19. 18 Financial Forecasting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 18.1 The Importance of Forecasting
    3. 18.2 Forecasting Sales
    4. 18.3 Pro Forma Financials
    5. 18.4 Generating the Complete Forecast
    6. 18.5 Forecasting Cash Flow and Assessing the Value of Growth
    7. 18.6 Using Excel to Create the Long-Term Forecast
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  20. 19 The Importance of Trade Credit and Working Capital in Planning
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 19.1 What Is Working Capital?
    3. 19.2 What Is Trade Credit?
    4. 19.3 Cash Management
    5. 19.4 Receivables Management
    6. 19.5 Inventory Management
    7. 19.6 Using Excel to Create the Short-Term Plan
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Video Activity
  21. 20 Risk Management and the Financial Manager
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 20.1 The Importance of Risk Management
    3. 20.2 Commodity Price Risk
    4. 20.3 Exchange Rates and Risk
    5. 20.4 Interest Rate Risk
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. CFA Institute
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  22. Index

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Demonstrate bond valuations using Excel.
  • Demonstrate bond yield calculations using Excel.

Calculating the Price (Present Value) of a Bond

The following examples illustrate how Microsoft Excel can be used to calculate common bond problems. Please be sure to refer to the chapters on the time value of money for examples of using spreadsheets to solve present value problems, as these same concepts are also used in solving bond problems.

You can use the following steps in Excel to determine the price or present value of a coupon bond. Suppose that a bond has a par or face value of $1,000, pays coupons semiannually at a 4% annual rate, and matures in 15 years. We can assume a YTM rate of 5%.

  1. First, select Formulas from the Excel upper menu bar, and from the dialog box, select PV (see Figure 10.11).
    A screenshot of excel shows function formulas from the upper menu bar. PV is selected from the function drop down menu.
    Figure 10.11 Using Excel to Enter a PV (Present Value) Function
  2. When the PV function is selected, another dialog box will appear (see Figure 10.12). It is here that the function variables, or arguments, will be entered. It is preferable to use cell addresses to refer to these arguments so that the spreadsheet can be easily used again if inputs/arguments change.
    A screenshot of a function arguments window, where parameters to calculate the present value function are required to be entered. The parameters to enter are rate, Nper, pmt, Fv, and Type.
    Figure 10.12 Function Arguments Dialog Box
  3. Enter the function inputs or arguments (see Figure 10.13). We refer to the cell addresses as per our example spreadsheet.
    A screenshot of the Function arguments window, where parameters to calculate the present value function are entered according to the data in the Excel sheet.
    Figure 10.13 Completed Data Entry Menu

Note that the result, the price or present value, will appear in the bottom left section of the Function Arguments box once the arguments are entered. It will appear as a negative value because of the sign convention and because the bond face value in cell F4 was entered as a positive value.

Calculating the Yield to Maturity (Interest Rate) of a Bond

Use the following steps in Excel to determine the YTM (interest rate) of a bond. Assume that you want to find the YTM of a $1,000, 3.5% bond with annual coupon payments that is selling for $675.00 and will mature in 12 years.

  1. First, select Formulas from the Excel upper menu bar, and from the dialog box, select Rate (see Figure 10.14).
    A screenshot of the Insert Function window, where the Rate function is selected.
    Figure 10.14 Using Excel to Enter a Rate Function
  2. After the dialog box appears, enter the variables or arguments. As with our earlier example, we will use the preferred method of identifying the arguments with cell addresses (see Figure 10.15).
    A screenshot of the Function arguments window, where parameters to calculate the rate value function are entered according to the data in the Excel sheet.
    Figure 10.15 Completed Data Entry Menu
  3. Again, after all arguments are entered through their correct cell references, the answer will appear in the lower left corner of the box. Once satisfied with the result, you can hit Enter to insert this final calculated value in your spreadsheet. This has been set up in this sheet in cell H10.

Think It Through

Calculating a Coca-Cola Bond to Maturity

Earlier, we covered how a financial calculator could be used to determine the YTM of our Coca-Cola bond example. If we wanted to use an Excel spreadsheet to perform this calculation instead of a calculator, we would set up our spreadsheet as shown in the steps below. The current bond price, entered as a negative, is ($952.06). The bond face value of FV is $1,000; the time period is 7 years×27 years×2, or 14 semiannual periods; the coupon rate is 1%21%2, or 0.05%; and the coupon payment is $5.00.

  1. First, select Formulas from the Excel upper menu bar, and from the dialog box, select Rate (see Figure 10.16).
    A screenshot of the Insert Function window, where the Rate function is selected.
    Figure 10.16 Using Excel to Enter a Rate Function
  2. After the dialog box appears, enter the variables or arguments. As with our earlier examples, we will use the preferred method of identifying arguments with cell addresses (see Figure 10.17).
    A screenshot of the Function arguments window, where parameters to calculate the rate value function are entered according to the data in the Excel sheet.
    Figure 10.17 Completed Data Entry Menu
  3. Again, after all arguments are entered through their correct cell references, the answer will appear in the lower left corner of the box. Once satisfied with the result, you can hit Enter to insert this final calculated value into your spreadsheet. This has been set up in this sheet in cell H10.

As noted above, remember that this is a semiannual rate because it was calculated using semiannual coupon payments and periods. To express it as an annual YTM rate, you must multiply it by 2.

Calculating the Maturity Period (Term) of a Bond

You can use the following steps in Excel to determine the maturity period or term of a bond. Assume that you are considering investing in a bond that is selling for $820.00, has a face value of $1,000, and has an annual coupon rate of 3%. If the YTM is 10%, how long will it be until the bond matures?

  1. First, select Formulas from the Excel upper menu bar, and from the dialog box, select Nper (see Figure 10.18).
    A screenshot of the Insert Function window, where the NPER function is selected.
    Figure 10.18 Using Excel to Calculate Bond Time to Maturity
  2. When the dialog box appears, enter function arguments (see Figure 10.19). Once again, we will use the preferred method of using cell addresses as reference points.
    A screenshot of the Function arguments window, where parameters to calculate the NPER value function are entered according to the data in the Excel sheet.
    Figure 10.19 Completed Data Entry Menu
  3. When arguments have all been entered, the answer will appear in the lower left of the Function Arguments box, as per the above. We arrive at a final answer of 3.12 years until this bond matures.

Calculating Coupon Rate and Interest (Coupon) Payments

Here is how you would determine the coupon or interest rate and coupon payment using Excel. Assume a $1,000 face value bond is selling for $595, has 20 years until it matures, and has a YTM of 6.5%. What are the coupon rate and the periodic coupon payment amount of the bond?

  1. First, select Formulas from the Excel upper menu bar, and from the dialog box, select PMT (see Figure 10.20).
    A screenshot of the Insert Function window, where the PMT function is selected.
    Figure 10.20 Using Excel to Enter a PMT or Payment Function
  2. When the dialog box appears, enter function arguments. Once again, we will use the preferred method of using cell addresses as reference points (see Figure 10.21).
    A screenshot of the Function arguments window, where parameters to calculate the PMT value function are entered according to the data in the Excel sheet.
    Figure 10.21 Completed Data Entry Menu
  3. When arguments have all been entered, the answer will appear in the lower left of the Function Arguments box, as per the above. We arrive at a final answer of $28.24 as the coupon payment.

The coupon rate can be calculated by taking this coupon payment amount and dividing it by the face value:

$28.24$1,000=2.824%$28.24$1,000=2.824%

So, the coupon rate is 2.824%.

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