Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo
Principles of Finance

1.8 Concepts of Time and Value

Principles of Finance1.8 Concepts of Time and Value

Menu
Table of contents
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Introduction to Finance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 1.1 What Is Finance?
    3. 1.2 The Role of Finance in an Organization
    4. 1.3 Importance of Data and Technology
    5. 1.4 Careers in Finance
    6. 1.5 Markets and Participants
    7. 1.6 Microeconomic and Macroeconomic Matters
    8. 1.7 Financial Instruments
    9. 1.8 Concepts of Time and Value
    10. Summary
    11. Key Terms
    12. Multiple Choice
    13. Review Questions
    14. Video Activity
  3. 2 Corporate Structure and Governance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 2.1 Business Structures
    3. 2.2 Relationship between Shareholders and Company Management
    4. 2.3 Role of the Board of Directors
    5. 2.4 Agency Issues: Shareholders and Corporate Boards
    6. 2.5 Interacting with Investors, Intermediaries, and Other Market Participants
    7. 2.6 Companies in Domestic and Global Markets
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Video Activity
  4. 3 Economic Foundations: Money and Rates
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 3.1 Microeconomics
    3. 3.2 Macroeconomics
    4. 3.3 Business Cycles and Economic Activity
    5. 3.4 Interest Rates
    6. 3.5 Foreign Exchange Rates
    7. 3.6 Sources and Characteristics of Economic Data
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  5. 4 Accrual Accounting Process
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 4.1 Cash versus Accrual Accounting
    3. 4.2 Economic Basis for Accrual Accounting
    4. 4.3 How Does a Company Recognize a Sale and an Expense?
    5. 4.4 When Should a Company Capitalize or Expense an Item?
    6. 4.5 What Is “Profit” versus “Loss” for the Company?
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  6. 5 Financial Statements
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 5.1 The Income Statement
    3. 5.2 The Balance Sheet
    4. 5.3 The Relationship between the Balance Sheet and the Income Statement
    5. 5.4 The Statement of Owner’s Equity
    6. 5.5 The Statement of Cash Flows
    7. 5.6 Operating Cash Flow and Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF)
    8. 5.7 Common-Size Statements
    9. 5.8 Reporting Financial Activity
    10. Summary
    11. Key Terms
    12. CFA Institute
    13. Multiple Choice
    14. Review Questions
    15. Problems
    16. Video Activity
  7. 6 Measures of Financial Health
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 6.1 Ratios: Condensing Information into Smaller Pieces
    3. 6.2 Operating Efficiency Ratios
    4. 6.3 Liquidity Ratios
    5. 6.4 Solvency Ratios
    6. 6.5 Market Value Ratios
    7. 6.6 Profitability Ratios and the DuPont Method
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  8. 7 Time Value of Money I: Single Payment Value
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 7.1 Now versus Later Concepts
    3. 7.2 Time Value of Money (TVM) Basics
    4. 7.3 Methods for Solving Time Value of Money Problems
    5. 7.4 Applications of TVM in Finance
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. CFA Institute
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  9. 8 Time Value of Money II: Equal Multiple Payments
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 8.1 Perpetuities
    3. 8.2 Annuities
    4. 8.3 Loan Amortization
    5. 8.4 Stated versus Effective Rates
    6. 8.5 Equal Payments with a Financial Calculator and Excel
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  10. 9 Time Value of Money III: Unequal Multiple Payment Values
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 9.1 Timing of Cash Flows
    3. 9.2 Unequal Payments Using a Financial Calculator or Microsoft Excel
    4. Summary
    5. Key Terms
    6. CFA Institute
    7. Multiple Choice
    8. Review Questions
    9. Problems
    10. Video Activity
  11. 10 Bonds and Bond Valuation
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 10.1 Characteristics of Bonds
    3. 10.2 Bond Valuation
    4. 10.3 Using the Yield Curve
    5. 10.4 Risks of Interest Rates and Default
    6. 10.5 Using Spreadsheets to Solve Bond Problems
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  12. 11 Stocks and Stock Valuation
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 11.1 Multiple Approaches to Stock Valuation
    3. 11.2 Dividend Discount Models (DDMs)
    4. 11.3 Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) Model
    5. 11.4 Preferred Stock
    6. 11.5 Efficient Markets
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  13. 12 Historical Performance of US Markets
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 12.1 Overview of US Financial Markets
    3. 12.2 Historical Picture of Inflation
    4. 12.3 Historical Picture of Returns to Bonds
    5. 12.4 Historical Picture of Returns to Stocks
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. Multiple Choice
    9. Review Questions
    10. Video Activity
  14. 13 Statistical Analysis in Finance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 13.1 Measures of Center
    3. 13.2 Measures of Spread
    4. 13.3 Measures of Position
    5. 13.4 Statistical Distributions
    6. 13.5 Probability Distributions
    7. 13.6 Data Visualization and Graphical Displays
    8. 13.7 The R Statistical Analysis Tool
    9. Summary
    10. Key Terms
    11. CFA Institute
    12. Multiple Choice
    13. Review Questions
    14. Problems
    15. Video Activity
  15. 14 Regression Analysis in Finance
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 14.1 Correlation Analysis
    3. 14.2 Linear Regression Analysis
    4. 14.3 Best-Fit Linear Model
    5. 14.4 Regression Applications in Finance
    6. 14.5 Predictions and Prediction Intervals
    7. 14.6 Use of R Statistical Analysis Tool for Regression Analysis
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  16. 15 How to Think about Investing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 15.1 Risk and Return to an Individual Asset
    3. 15.2 Risk and Return to Multiple Assets
    4. 15.3 The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)
    5. 15.4 Applications in Performance Measurement
    6. 15.5 Using Excel to Make Investment Decisions
    7. Summary
    8. Key Terms
    9. CFA Institute
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  17. 16 How Companies Think about Investing
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 16.1 Payback Period Method
    3. 16.2 Net Present Value (NPV) Method
    4. 16.3 Internal Rate of Return (IRR) Method
    5. 16.4 Alternative Methods
    6. 16.5 Choosing between Projects
    7. 16.6 Using Excel to Make Company Investment Decisions
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  18. 17 How Firms Raise Capital
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 17.1 The Concept of Capital Structure
    3. 17.2 The Costs of Debt and Equity Capital
    4. 17.3 Calculating the Weighted Average Cost of Capital
    5. 17.4 Capital Structure Choices
    6. 17.5 Optimal Capital Structure
    7. 17.6 Alternative Sources of Funds
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. CFA Institute
    11. Multiple Choice
    12. Review Questions
    13. Problems
    14. Video Activity
  19. 18 Financial Forecasting
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 18.1 The Importance of Forecasting
    3. 18.2 Forecasting Sales
    4. 18.3 Pro Forma Financials
    5. 18.4 Generating the Complete Forecast
    6. 18.5 Forecasting Cash Flow and Assessing the Value of Growth
    7. 18.6 Using Excel to Create the Long-Term Forecast
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Problems
    13. Video Activity
  20. 19 The Importance of Trade Credit and Working Capital in Planning
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 19.1 What Is Working Capital?
    3. 19.2 What Is Trade Credit?
    4. 19.3 Cash Management
    5. 19.4 Receivables Management
    6. 19.5 Inventory Management
    7. 19.6 Using Excel to Create the Short-Term Plan
    8. Summary
    9. Key Terms
    10. Multiple Choice
    11. Review Questions
    12. Video Activity
  21. 20 Risk Management and the Financial Manager
    1. Why It Matters
    2. 20.1 The Importance of Risk Management
    3. 20.2 Commodity Price Risk
    4. 20.3 Exchange Rates and Risk
    5. 20.4 Interest Rate Risk
    6. Summary
    7. Key Terms
    8. CFA Institute
    9. Multiple Choice
    10. Review Questions
    11. Problems
    12. Video Activity
  22. Index

Learning Outcomes

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

  • Explain the impact of time on saving and spending.
  • Describe economic value.

Many students don’t have a choice between saving and spending. College is expensive, and it is easy to spend every dollar you earn and to borrow to meet the rest of your obligations. Businesses, however, continually make decisions about when and how much money to borrow or invest. Bacon Signs established banking relationships to borrow money when needed to expand the business or a product line. Sometimes the best decision is to invest as soon as possible to grab opportunities, and other times it is better to delay new investment in order to pay dividends to the owners of the company.

Impact of Time on Saving and Spending

The choice to spend or save and invest is really a choice between consumption today versus consumption in the future. Economists, investment advisers, your friends, and mine love to discuss the trade-off of consumption now or later—even if not in those words. We have all heard conversations that go something like this: “Let’s go grab a beer—you can study for tomorrow’s exam in the morning.” Or “My father’s investment adviser told me that if I invest $500 per month for the next 30 years and earn an annual rate of 10% on my investments, I will have invested $180,000 over time but accumulated an investment portfolio worth over $1.13 million!”

An important aspect of the trade-off between saving and spending involves your short-, intermediate-, and long-term goals. Delaying consumption until later comes with risks. Will your consumption choices still be available? Will the prices be attainable? Will you still be able to consume and enjoy your future purchases?

When saving for short-term objectives, the safety of the principal invested is important, and the value of compounding returns is minimal compared to longer-term investments. Most short-term investors have a low tolerance for risk and hope to beat the rate of inflation with a little extra besides. An example could be to start a holiday savings account at your local bank as a way to save, earn a small rate of return, and assure that you have funds set aside for consumption at the end of the year.

An intermediate investment may be to save for a new car or for the down payment on a house or vacation home. Again, maintaining the principal is important, but you have some time to recover from poor investment returns. Intermediate-term investments tend to earn higher average annual rates of return than short-term investments, but they also have greater uncertainty and risk.

Long-term investments have the advantage of enough time to recover from temporary poor performance and the luxury of compounded returns over a long period. Further, long-term investments tend to have greater risk and higher expected average annual rates of return. Even though this is a business finance text, sometimes a personal finance example is easier to relate to. To illustrate, Table 1.2 demonstrates four different investment scenarios. In scenario 1, you invest $5,000 annually from ages 26 through 60 into an account earning an average annual rate of return of 10% per year. Over your lifetime, you invest a total of $175,000, and at age 60, you have an estimated portfolio value of $1,490,634. This is a healthy amount that has almost certainly beaten the average annual rate of inflation. In scenario 1, by investing regularly, you accumulate roughly 8.5 times the value of what you invested. Congratulations, you can expect to become a millionaire!

Compare your results in scenario 1 with your college roommate in scenario 2, who is able to invest $5,000 per year from ages 19 through 25 and leave her investments until age 60 in an account that continues to earn an annual rate of 10%. She makes her investments earlier than yours, but they total only $35,000. However, despite a much smaller investment, her head start advantage and the high average annual compounded rate of return leave her with an expected portfolio value of $1,466,369. Her total is almost as great as the amount you would accumulate, but with a much smaller total investment.

Scenarios 3 and 4 are even more dramatic, as can be seen from a review of Table 1.2. In both scenarios, only five $5,000 investments are made, but they are made earlier in the investor’s life. Parents or grandparents could make these investments on behalf of the recipients. In both scenarios, the portfolios grow to amounts greater than those of you or your roommate with smaller total investments. The common factor is that greater time leads to additional compounding of the investments and thus greater future values.

Average Annual Rate of Return = 10%
Assumptions Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3 Scenario 4
Starting investment age 26 19 14 9
Ending investment age 60 25 18 13
Total investments 35 7 5 5
Annual investment $5,000 $5,000 $5,000 $5,000
Total investment amount $175,000 $35,000 $25,000 $25,000
Value at age 60 $1,490,634 $1,466,369 $1,838,858 $2,961,500
Table 1.2 Four Investment Scenarios: Assumptions and Expected Outcomes

Definition of Economic Value

Value is a term used frequently in business and especially in economics, accounting, and finance. Accountants track, record, and display value in the form of financial statements and footnotes. The numbers they present are “book values” and represent what has occurred. Financial people like to speak in terms of “market values.” Market values are calculated using expected future cash flows discounted to today. Market values are the prices that consumers pay for a product. Economic value is what we believe consumers are actually willing to pay for a product, service, or experience. For example, the price of a movie ticket may be $10, but there are individuals who are willing to pay far more for the experience of watching a movie on the big screen.

Generally, the economic value is at least as great as the market value or current price of an asset. When Bacon Signs planned for the future, the firm attempted to determine the economic value of its products when creating an optimal mix of price and quantity sold. Firms that produce unique products for clients may have multiple prices based on the estimated economic value of their good or service to the client. One way to think about the difference between market value and economic value is that market value is what you have to pay, while economic value is what you are willing to pay.

Do you know how you learn best?
Kinetic by OpenStax offers access to innovative study tools designed to help you maximize your learning potential.
Order a print copy

As an Amazon Associate we earn from qualifying purchases.

Citation/Attribution

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/principles-finance/pages/1-why-it-matters
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/principles-finance/pages/1-why-it-matters
Citation information

© May 20, 2022 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.