In 2001, the economy of the United Kingdom exported goods worth £192 billion and services worth another £77 billion. It imported goods worth £225 billion and services worth £66 billion. Receipts of income from abroad were £140 billion while income payments going abroad were £131 billion. Government transfers from the United Kingdom to the rest of the world were £23 billion, while various U.K government agencies received payments of £16 billion from the rest of the world.
- Calculate the U.K. merchandise trade deficit for 2001.
- Calculate the current account balance for 2001.
- Explain how you decided whether payments on foreign investment and government transfers counted on the positive or the negative side of the current account balance for the United Kingdom in 2001.
Imagine that the U.S. economy finds itself in the following situation: a government budget deficit of $100 billion, total domestic savings of $1,500 billion, and total domestic physical capital investment of $1,600 billion. According to the national saving and investment identity, what will be the current account balance? What will be the current account balance if investment rises by $50 billion, while the budget deficit and national savings remain the same?
Table 23.7 provides some hypothetical data on macroeconomic accounts for three countries represented by A, B, and C and measured in billions of currency units. In Table 23.7, private household saving is SH, tax revenue is T, government spending is G, and investment spending is I.
- Calculate the trade balance and the net inflow of foreign saving for each country.
- State whether each one has a trade surplus or deficit (or balanced trade).
- State whether each is a net lender or borrower internationally and explain.
Imagine that the economy of Germany finds itself in the following situation: the government budget has a surplus of 1% of Germany’s GDP; private savings is 20% of GDP; and physical investment is 18% of GDP.
- Based on the national saving and investment identity, what is the current account balance?
- If the government budget surplus falls to zero, how will this affect the current account balance?