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Precalculus

Key Concepts

PrecalculusKey Concepts
  1. Preface
  2. 1 Functions
    1. Introduction to Functions
    2. 1.1 Functions and Function Notation
    3. 1.2 Domain and Range
    4. 1.3 Rates of Change and Behavior of Graphs
    5. 1.4 Composition of Functions
    6. 1.5 Transformation of Functions
    7. 1.6 Absolute Value Functions
    8. 1.7 Inverse Functions
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  3. 2 Linear Functions
    1. Introduction to Linear Functions
    2. 2.1 Linear Functions
    3. 2.2 Graphs of Linear Functions
    4. 2.3 Modeling with Linear Functions
    5. 2.4 Fitting Linear Models to Data
    6. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
    7. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  4. 3 Polynomial and Rational Functions
    1. Introduction to Polynomial and Rational Functions
    2. 3.1 Complex Numbers
    3. 3.2 Quadratic Functions
    4. 3.3 Power Functions and Polynomial Functions
    5. 3.4 Graphs of Polynomial Functions
    6. 3.5 Dividing Polynomials
    7. 3.6 Zeros of Polynomial Functions
    8. 3.7 Rational Functions
    9. 3.8 Inverses and Radical Functions
    10. 3.9 Modeling Using Variation
    11. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
    12. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  5. 4 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    1. Introduction to Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
    2. 4.1 Exponential Functions
    3. 4.2 Graphs of Exponential Functions
    4. 4.3 Logarithmic Functions
    5. 4.4 Graphs of Logarithmic Functions
    6. 4.5 Logarithmic Properties
    7. 4.6 Exponential and Logarithmic Equations
    8. 4.7 Exponential and Logarithmic Models
    9. 4.8 Fitting Exponential Models to Data
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  6. 5 Trigonometric Functions
    1. Introduction to Trigonometric Functions
    2. 5.1 Angles
    3. 5.2 Unit Circle: Sine and Cosine Functions
    4. 5.3 The Other Trigonometric Functions
    5. 5.4 Right Triangle Trigonometry
    6. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
    7. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  7. 6 Periodic Functions
    1. Introduction to Periodic Functions
    2. 6.1 Graphs of the Sine and Cosine Functions
    3. 6.2 Graphs of the Other Trigonometric Functions
    4. 6.3 Inverse Trigonometric Functions
    5. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
    6. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  8. 7 Trigonometric Identities and Equations
    1. Introduction to Trigonometric Identities and Equations
    2. 7.1 Solving Trigonometric Equations with Identities
    3. 7.2 Sum and Difference Identities
    4. 7.3 Double-Angle, Half-Angle, and Reduction Formulas
    5. 7.4 Sum-to-Product and Product-to-Sum Formulas
    6. 7.5 Solving Trigonometric Equations
    7. 7.6 Modeling with Trigonometric Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
    9. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  9. 8 Further Applications of Trigonometry
    1. Introduction to Further Applications of Trigonometry
    2. 8.1 Non-right Triangles: Law of Sines
    3. 8.2 Non-right Triangles: Law of Cosines
    4. 8.3 Polar Coordinates
    5. 8.4 Polar Coordinates: Graphs
    6. 8.5 Polar Form of Complex Numbers
    7. 8.6 Parametric Equations
    8. 8.7 Parametric Equations: Graphs
    9. 8.8 Vectors
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  10. 9 Systems of Equations and Inequalities
    1. Introduction to Systems of Equations and Inequalities
    2. 9.1 Systems of Linear Equations: Two Variables
    3. 9.2 Systems of Linear Equations: Three Variables
    4. 9.3 Systems of Nonlinear Equations and Inequalities: Two Variables
    5. 9.4 Partial Fractions
    6. 9.5 Matrices and Matrix Operations
    7. 9.6 Solving Systems with Gaussian Elimination
    8. 9.7 Solving Systems with Inverses
    9. 9.8 Solving Systems with Cramer's Rule
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
    11. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  11. 10 Analytic Geometry
    1. Introduction to Analytic Geometry
    2. 10.1 The Ellipse
    3. 10.2 The Hyperbola
    4. 10.3 The Parabola
    5. 10.4 Rotation of Axes
    6. 10.5 Conic Sections in Polar Coordinates
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
    8. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  12. 11 Sequences, Probability and Counting Theory
    1. Introduction to Sequences, Probability and Counting Theory
    2. 11.1 Sequences and Their Notations
    3. 11.2 Arithmetic Sequences
    4. 11.3 Geometric Sequences
    5. 11.4 Series and Their Notations
    6. 11.5 Counting Principles
    7. 11.6 Binomial Theorem
    8. 11.7 Probability
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
    10. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  13. 12 Introduction to Calculus
    1. Introduction to Calculus
    2. 12.1 Finding Limits: Numerical and Graphical Approaches
    3. 12.2 Finding Limits: Properties of Limits
    4. 12.3 Continuity
    5. 12.4 Derivatives
    6. Chapter Review
      1. Key Terms
      2. Key Equations
      3. Key Concepts
    7. Exercises
      1. Review Exercises
      2. Practice Test
  14. A | Basic Functions and Identities
  15. Answer Key
    1. Chapter 1
    2. Chapter 2
    3. Chapter 3
    4. Chapter 4
    5. Chapter 5
    6. Chapter 6
    7. Chapter 7
    8. Chapter 8
    9. Chapter 9
    10. Chapter 10
    11. Chapter 11
    12. Chapter 12
  16. Index

Key Concepts

2.1 Linear Functions

  • The ordered pairs given by a linear function represent points on a line.
  • Linear functions can be represented in words, function notation, tabular form, and graphical form. See Example 1.
  • The rate of change of a linear function is also known as the slope.
  • An equation in the slope-intercept form of a line includes the slope and the initial value of the function.
  • The initial value, or y-intercept, is the output value when the input of a linear function is zero. It is the y-value of the point at which the line crosses the y-axis.
  • An increasing linear function results in a graph that slants upward from left to right and has a positive slope.
  • A decreasing linear function results in a graph that slants downward from left to right and has a negative slope.
  • A constant linear function results in a graph that is a horizontal line.
  • Analyzing the slope within the context of a problem indicates whether a linear function is increasing, decreasing, or constant. See Example 2.
  • The slope of a linear function can be calculated by dividing the difference between y-values by the difference in corresponding x-values of any two points on the line. See Example 3 and Example 4.
  • The slope and initial value can be determined given a graph or any two points on the line.
  • One type of function notation is the slope-intercept form of an equation.
  • The point-slope form is useful for finding a linear equation when given the slope of a line and one point. See Example 5.
  • The point-slope form is also convenient for finding a linear equation when given two points through which a line passes. See Example 6.
  • The equation for a linear function can be written if the slope mm and initial value bb are known. See Example 7, Example 8, and Example 9.
  • A linear function can be used to solve real-world problems. See Example 10 and Example 11.
  • A linear function can be written from tabular form. See Example 12.

2.2 Graphs of Linear Functions

  • Linear functions may be graphed by plotting points or by using the y-intercept and slope. See Example 1 and Example 2.
  • Graphs of linear functions may be transformed by using shifts up, down, left, or right, as well as through stretches, compressions, and reflections. See Example 3.
  • The y-intercept and slope of a line may be used to write the equation of a line.
  • The x-intercept is the point at which the graph of a linear function crosses the x-axis. See Example 4 and Example 5.
  • Horizontal lines are written in the form, f(x)=b.f(x)=b. See Example 6.
  • Vertical lines are written in the form, x=b.x=b. See Example 7.
  • Parallel lines have the same slope.
  • Perpendicular lines have negative reciprocal slopes, assuming neither is vertical. See Example 8.
  • A line parallel to another line, passing through a given point, may be found by substituting the slope value of the line and the x- and y-values of the given point into the equation, f(x)=mx+b,f(x)=mx+b, and using the bb that results. Similarly, the point-slope form of an equation can also be used. See Example 9.
  • A line perpendicular to another line, passing through a given point, may be found in the same manner, with the exception of using the negative reciprocal slope. See Example 10 and Example 11.
  • A system of linear equations may be solved setting the two equations equal to one another and solving for x.x. The y-value may be found by evaluating either one of the original equations using this x-value.
  • A system of linear equations may also be solved by finding the point of intersection on a graph. See Example 12 and Example 13.

2.3 Modeling with Linear Functions

  • We can use the same problem strategies that we would use for any type of function.
  • When modeling and solving a problem, identify the variables and look for key values, including the slope and y-intercept. See Example 1.
  • Draw a diagram, where appropriate. See Example 2 and Example 3.
  • Check for reasonableness of the answer.
  • Linear models may be built by identifying or calculating the slope and using the y-intercept.
  • The x-intercept may be found by setting y=0, y=0, which is setting the expression mx+b mx+b equal to 0.
  • The point of intersection of a system of linear equations is the point where the x- and y-values are the same. See Example 4.
  • A graph of the system may be used to identify the points where one line falls below (or above) the other line.

2.4 Fitting Linear Models to Data

  • Scatter plots show the relationship between two sets of data. See Example 1.
  • Scatter plots may represent linear or non-linear models.
  • The line of best fit may be estimated or calculated, using a calculator or statistical software. See Example 2.
  • Interpolation can be used to predict values inside the domain and range of the data, whereas extrapolation can be used to predict values outside the domain and range of the data. See Example 3.
  • The correlation coefficient, r,r, indicates the degree of linear relationship between data. See Example 5.
  • A regression line best fits the data. See Example 6.
  • The least squares regression line is found by minimizing the squares of the distances of points from a line passing through the data and may be used to make predictions regarding either of the variables. See Example 4.
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