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Physics

Preface

PhysicsPreface
  1. Preface
  2. 1 What is Physics?
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Physics: Definitions and Applications
    3. 1.2 The Scientific Methods
    4. 1.3 The Language of Physics: Physical Quantities and Units
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  3. 2 Motion in One Dimension
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Relative Motion, Distance, and Displacement
    3. 2.2 Speed and Velocity
    4. 2.3 Position vs. Time Graphs
    5. 2.4 Velocity vs. Time Graphs
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  4. 3 Acceleration
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Acceleration
    3. 3.2 Representing Acceleration with Equations and Graphs
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  5. 4 Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Force
    3. 4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia
    4. 4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion
    5. 4.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  6. 5 Motion in Two Dimensions
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods
    3. 5.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods
    4. 5.3 Projectile Motion
    5. 5.4 Inclined Planes
    6. 5.5 Simple Harmonic Motion
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  7. 6 Circular and Rotational Motion
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Angle of Rotation and Angular Velocity
    3. 6.2 Uniform Circular Motion
    4. 6.3 Rotational Motion
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  8. 7 Newton's Law of Gravitation
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
    3. 7.2 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation and Einstein's Theory of General Relativity
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  9. 8 Momentum
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Linear Momentum, Force, and Impulse
    3. 8.2 Conservation of Momentum
    4. 8.3 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  10. 9 Work, Energy, and Simple Machines
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Work, Power, and the Work–Energy Theorem
    3. 9.2 Mechanical Energy and Conservation of Energy
    4. 9.3 Simple Machines
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  11. 10 Special Relativity
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Postulates of Special Relativity
    3. 10.2 Consequences of Special Relativity
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  12. 11 Thermal Energy, Heat, and Work
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Temperature and Thermal Energy
    3. 11.2 Heat, Specific Heat, and Heat Transfer
    4. 11.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  13. 12 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Equilibrium
    3. 12.2 First law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Energy and Work
    4. 12.3 Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy
    5. 12.4 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines, Heat Pumps, and Refrigerators
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  14. 13 Waves and Their Properties
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Types of Waves
    3. 13.2 Wave Properties: Speed, Amplitude, Frequency, and Period
    4. 13.3 Wave Interaction: Superposition and Interference
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  15. 14 Sound
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength
    3. 14.2 Sound Intensity and Sound Level
    4. 14.3 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
    5. 14.4 Sound Interference and Resonance
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  16. 15 Light
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    3. 15.2 The Behavior of Electromagnetic Radiation
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  17. 16 Mirrors and Lenses
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Reflection
    3. 16.2 Refraction
    4. 16.3 Lenses
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  18. 17 Diffraction and Interference
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Understanding Diffraction and Interference
    3. 17.2 Applications of Diffraction, Interference, and Coherence
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  19. 18 Static Electricity
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Electrical Charges, Conservation of Charge, and Transfer of Charge
    3. 18.2 Coulomb's law
    4. 18.3 Electric Field
    5. 18.4 Electric Potential
    6. 18.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  20. 19 Electrical Circuits
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Ohm's law
    3. 19.2 Series Circuits
    4. 19.3 Parallel Circuits
    5. 19.4 Electric Power
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  21. 20 Magnetism
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Magnetic Fields, Field Lines, and Force
    3. 20.2 Motors, Generators, and Transformers
    4. 20.3 Electromagnetic Induction
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  22. 21 The Quantum Nature of Light
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Planck and Quantum Nature of Light
    3. 21.2 Einstein and the Photoelectric Effect
    4. 21.3 The Dual Nature of Light
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  23. 22 The Atom
    1. Introduction
    2. 22.1 The Structure of the Atom
    3. 22.2 Nuclear Forces and Radioactivity
    4. 22.3 Half Life and Radiometric Dating
    5. 22.4 Nuclear Fission and Fusion
    6. 22.5 Medical Applications of Radioactivity: Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  24. 23 Particle Physics
    1. Introduction
    2. 23.1 The Four Fundamental Forces
    3. 23.2 Quarks
    4. 23.3 The Unification of Forces
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  25. A | Reference Tables
  26. Index

Welcome to Physics, an OpenStax resource. This textbook was written to increase student access to high-quality learning materials, maintaining highest standards of academic rigor at little to no cost.

About OpenStax

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Art Atrribution in Physics

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Format

You can access this textbook for free in web view or PDF through OpenStax.org, and for a low cost in print.

About Physics

This instructional material was initially created through a Texas Education Agency (TEA) initiative to provide high-quality open-source instructional materials to districts free of charge. Funds were allocated by the 84th Texas Legislature (2015) for the creation of state-developed, open-source instructional materials with the request that advanced secondary courses supporting the study of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics should be prioritized.

Physics covers the scope and sequence requirements of a typical one-year physics course. The text provides comprehensive coverage of physical concepts, quantitative examples and skills, and interesting applications. High School Physics has been designed to meet and exceed the requirements of the relevant Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), while allowing significant flexibility for instructors.

Qualified and experienced Texas faculty were involved throughout the development process, and the textbooks were reviewed extensively to ensure effectiveness and usability in each course. Reviewers considered each resource’s clarity, accuracy, student support, assessment rigor and appropriateness, alignment to TEKS, and overall quality. Their invaluable suggestions provided the basis for continually improved material and helped to certify that the books are ready for use. The writers and reviewers also considered common course issues, effective teaching strategies, and student engagement to provide instructors and students with useful, supportive content and drive effective learning experiences.

Coverage and scope

Physics presents physical laws, research, concepts, and skills in a logical and engaging progression that should be familiar to most physics faculty. The textbook begins with a general introduction to physics and scientific processes, which is followed by several chapters on motion and Newton’s laws. After mechanics, the students will move through thermodynamics, waves and sound, and light and optics. Electricity and magnetism and nuclear physics complete the textbook.

  • Chapter 1: What Is Physics?
  • Chapter 2: Motion in One Dimension
  • Chapter 3: Acceleration
  • Chapter 4: Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion
  • Chapter 5: Motion in Two Dimensions
  • Chapter 6: Circular and Rotational Motion
  • Chapter 7: Newton’s Law of Gravitation
  • Chapter 8: Momentum
  • Chapter 9: Work, Energy, and Simple Machines
  • Chapter 10: Special Relativity
  • Chapter 11: Thermal Energy, Heat, and Work
  • Chapter 12: Thermodynamics
  • Chapter 13: Waves and Their Properties
  • Chapter 14: Sound
  • Chapter 15: Light
  • Chapter 16: Mirrors and Lenses
  • Chapter 17: Diffraction and Interference
  • Chapter 18: Static Electricity
  • Chapter 19: Electrical Circuits
  • Chapter 20: Magnetism
  • Chapter 21: The Quantum Nature of Light
  • Chapter 22: The Atom
  • Chapter 23: Particle Physics

Flexibility

Like any OpenStax content, this textbook can be modified as needed for use by the instructor depending on the needs of the students in the course. Each set of materials created by OpenStax is organized into units and chapters and can be used like a traditional textbook as the entire syllabus for each course. The materials can also be accessed in smaller chunks for more focused use with a single student or an entire class. Instructors are welcome to download and assign the PDF version of the textbook through a learning management system or can use their LMS to link students to specific chapters and sections of the book relevant to the concept being studied. The entire textbook will be available during the fall of 2020 in an editable Google document, and until then instructors are welcome to copy and paste content from the textbook to modify as needed prior to instruction.

Student-centered focus

Physics uses a friendly voice and exciting examples that appeal to a high school audience. The Chapter Openers, for example, include thought-provoking photographs and introductions that connect the content to experiences relevant to student’s lives. The writing in our program has been developed with universal design in mind to ensure students of all different backgrounds are reached. Content can be accessed through engaging text, informative visuals, hands-on activities, and online simulations. This diversity of learning media presents a wealth of reinforcement opportunities that allow students to review material in a new and fresh way.

Features
  • Snap Labs: Give students the opportunity to experience physics through hands-on activities. The labs can be completed quickly and rely primarily on readily available materials so that students can do them at home as they read.
  • Worked Examples: Promote both analytical and conceptual skills. In each example, the scenario/application is first introduced, followed by a description of the Strategy used to solve the problem that emphasizes the concepts involved. These are followed by a fully worked mathematical solution and a discussion of the results.
  • Fun in Physics: Features physics applications in various entertainment industries.
  • Work in Physics: Students can explore careers in physics as well as other careers that routinely employ physics.
  • Boundless Physics: Reveal frontiers in physical knowledge and descriptions of cutting-edge discoveries in physics.
  • Links to Physics: Highlight connections of physics to other disciplines.
  • Watch Physics: Support student’s understanding of conceptual and computational skills using videos from Khan Academy.
  • Virtual Physics: Provide inquiry and discovery-based learning by providing a virtual “sandbox” where students can experiment with simulated physics scenarios and equipment using the University of Colorado-developed PhET simulations.
  • Tips for Success: Offer students advice on how to approach content or problems.
Practice and Assessment
  • Grasp Checks: Formative assessments that review the comprehension of concepts and skills addressed through reading features, interactive features, and snap labs.
  • Practice Problems: Challenge students to apply concepts and skills they have seen in a Worked Example to solve a problem.
  • Check Your Understanding: Conceptual questions that, together with the practice problems, provide formative assessment on key topics in each section.
  • Performance Tasks: Challenge students to apply the content and skills they have learned to find a solution to a practical situation.
  • Test Prep: Helps prepare students to successfully respond to the format and rigor of standardized tests. The test prep includes multiple choice, short answer, and extended response items.

Additional resources

Student and instructor resources

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About the Authors

Senior Contributing Authors

Paul Peter Urone, California State University, Sacramento
Roger Hinrichs, State University of New York, College at Oswego

Contributing Authors

Fatih Gozuacik (Director of Technology and Education) holds master’s degrees in physics and atomic physics from Texas A&M Commerce and Sakarya University in Turkey. In addition to teaching AP® and College Physics, he has been a mentor for the Physics Bowl and the Science Olympiad, and has served as a college counselor for junior and senior students. Fatih was named the 2015 STEM teacher of the year by Educate Texas.

Denise Pattison (East Chambers ISD) was born and raised in Lumberton, Texas. She graduated from Lamar University - Beaumont in 2004 with a degree in science and has taught Physics, Pre AP® Physics, and IPC Physics. She loves teaching because it offers the opportunity to make a difference in a person’s life.

Catherine Tabor (Northwest Early High School) holds Bachelors degrees in Mathematics and Physics, a Master’s degree in Physics, and is working towards a PhD in Computer Science. She has taught for over twenty years, holding positions at a number of high schools in El Paso and colleges including Evergreen State and UT El Paso. At Northwest Early HS, she teaches Astronomy, AP® Physics, and AP® Computer Science.

Reviewers

  • Bryan Callow, Lindenwold High School, Lindenwold, NJ
  • John Boehringer, Prosper High School, Prosper, TX
  • Wade Green, Stony Point High School, Round Rock, TX
  • Susan Vogel, Rockwall-Heath High School, Heath TX
  • Stan Hutto, Southwest Christian School, TX
  • Richard Lines, Garland High School, Garland, TX
  • Penny McCool, San Antonio ISD, Raise Up Texas Coach
  • Loren Lykins, Science Department Chairman—Carlisle Independent School District, TX
  • Janie Horn, Cleveland High School, Magnolia, TX
  • Sean Oshman, Garland Independent School District, TX
  • Cort Gillen, Cypress Ranch High School, TX
Citation/Attribution

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book is Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 and you must attribute “Texas Education Agency (TEA)." The original material is available at: https://www.texasgateway.org/book/tea-physics . Changes were made to the original material, including updates to art, structure, and other content updates.

Attribution information
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    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/physics/pages/1-introduction
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    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/physics/pages/1-introduction
Citation information

© Sep 25, 2020 Texas Education Agency (TEA). The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.