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Physics

Concept Items

PhysicsConcept Items
  1. Preface
  2. 1 What is Physics?
    1. Introduction
    2. 1.1 Physics: Definitions and Applications
    3. 1.2 The Scientific Methods
    4. 1.3 The Language of Physics: Physical Quantities and Units
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  3. 2 Motion in One Dimension
    1. Introduction
    2. 2.1 Relative Motion, Distance, and Displacement
    3. 2.2 Speed and Velocity
    4. 2.3 Position vs. Time Graphs
    5. 2.4 Velocity vs. Time Graphs
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  4. 3 Acceleration
    1. Introduction
    2. 3.1 Acceleration
    3. 3.2 Representing Acceleration with Equations and Graphs
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  5. 4 Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion
    1. Introduction
    2. 4.1 Force
    3. 4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia
    4. 4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion
    5. 4.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  6. 5 Motion in Two Dimensions
    1. Introduction
    2. 5.1 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods
    3. 5.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods
    4. 5.3 Projectile Motion
    5. 5.4 Inclined Planes
    6. 5.5 Simple Harmonic Motion
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  7. 6 Circular and Rotational Motion
    1. Introduction
    2. 6.1 Angle of Rotation and Angular Velocity
    3. 6.2 Uniform Circular Motion
    4. 6.3 Rotational Motion
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  8. 7 Newton's Law of Gravitation
    1. Introduction
    2. 7.1 Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
    3. 7.2 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation and Einstein's Theory of General Relativity
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  9. 8 Momentum
    1. Introduction
    2. 8.1 Linear Momentum, Force, and Impulse
    3. 8.2 Conservation of Momentum
    4. 8.3 Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  10. 9 Work, Energy, and Simple Machines
    1. Introduction
    2. 9.1 Work, Power, and the Work–Energy Theorem
    3. 9.2 Mechanical Energy and Conservation of Energy
    4. 9.3 Simple Machines
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  11. 10 Special Relativity
    1. Introduction
    2. 10.1 Postulates of Special Relativity
    3. 10.2 Consequences of Special Relativity
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  12. 11 Thermal Energy, Heat, and Work
    1. Introduction
    2. 11.1 Temperature and Thermal Energy
    3. 11.2 Heat, Specific Heat, and Heat Transfer
    4. 11.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  13. 12 Thermodynamics
    1. Introduction
    2. 12.1 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Equilibrium
    3. 12.2 First law of Thermodynamics: Thermal Energy and Work
    4. 12.3 Second Law of Thermodynamics: Entropy
    5. 12.4 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines, Heat Pumps, and Refrigerators
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  14. 13 Waves and Their Properties
    1. Introduction
    2. 13.1 Types of Waves
    3. 13.2 Wave Properties: Speed, Amplitude, Frequency, and Period
    4. 13.3 Wave Interaction: Superposition and Interference
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  15. 14 Sound
    1. Introduction
    2. 14.1 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength
    3. 14.2 Sound Intensity and Sound Level
    4. 14.3 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms
    5. 14.4 Sound Interference and Resonance
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  16. 15 Light
    1. Introduction
    2. 15.1 The Electromagnetic Spectrum
    3. 15.2 The Behavior of Electromagnetic Radiation
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  17. 16 Mirrors and Lenses
    1. Introduction
    2. 16.1 Reflection
    3. 16.2 Refraction
    4. 16.3 Lenses
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  18. 17 Diffraction and Interference
    1. Introduction
    2. 17.1 Understanding Diffraction and Interference
    3. 17.2 Applications of Diffraction, Interference, and Coherence
    4. Key Terms
    5. Section Summary
    6. Key Equations
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  19. 18 Static Electricity
    1. Introduction
    2. 18.1 Electrical Charges, Conservation of Charge, and Transfer of Charge
    3. 18.2 Coulomb's law
    4. 18.3 Electric Field
    5. 18.4 Electric Potential
    6. 18.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  20. 19 Electrical Circuits
    1. Introduction
    2. 19.1 Ohm's law
    3. 19.2 Series Circuits
    4. 19.3 Parallel Circuits
    5. 19.4 Electric Power
    6. Key Terms
    7. Section Summary
    8. Key Equations
    9. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    10. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  21. 20 Magnetism
    1. Introduction
    2. 20.1 Magnetic Fields, Field Lines, and Force
    3. 20.2 Motors, Generators, and Transformers
    4. 20.3 Electromagnetic Induction
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  22. 21 The Quantum Nature of Light
    1. Introduction
    2. 21.1 Planck and Quantum Nature of Light
    3. 21.2 Einstein and the Photoelectric Effect
    4. 21.3 The Dual Nature of Light
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Key Equations
    8. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Problems
      4. Performance Task
    9. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  23. 22 The Atom
    1. Introduction
    2. 22.1 The Structure of the Atom
    3. 22.2 Nuclear Forces and Radioactivity
    4. 22.3 Half Life and Radiometric Dating
    5. 22.4 Nuclear Fission and Fusion
    6. 22.5 Medical Applications of Radioactivity: Diagnostic Imaging and Radiation
    7. Key Terms
    8. Section Summary
    9. Key Equations
    10. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Performance Task
    11. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  24. 23 Particle Physics
    1. Introduction
    2. 23.1 The Four Fundamental Forces
    3. 23.2 Quarks
    4. 23.3 The Unification of Forces
    5. Key Terms
    6. Section Summary
    7. Chapter Review
      1. Concept Items
      2. Critical Thinking Items
      3. Performance Task
    8. Test Prep
      1. Multiple Choice
      2. Short Answer
      3. Extended Response
  25. A | Reference Tables
  26. Index

Concept Items

1.1 Physics: Definitions and Applications

1.
Which statement best compares and contrasts the aims and topics of natural philosophy had versus physics?
  1. Natural philosophy included all aspects of nature including physics.
  2. Natural philosophy included all aspects of nature excluding physics.
  3. Natural philosophy and physics are different.
  4. Natural philosophy and physics are essentially the same thing.
2.

Which of the following is not an underlying assumption essential to scientific understanding?

  1. Characteristics of the physical universe can be perceived and objectively measured by human beings.
  2. Explanations of natural phenomena can be established with absolute certainty.
  3. Fundamental physical processes dictate how characteristics of the physical universe evolve.
  4. The fundamental processes of nature operate the same way everywhere and at all times.
3.

Which of the following questions regarding a strain of genetically modified rice is not one that can be answered by science?

  1. How does the yield of the genetically modified rice compare with that of existing rice?
  2. Is the genetically modified rice more resistant to infestation than existing rice?
  3. How does the nutritional value of the genetically modified rice compare to that of existing rice?
  4. Should the genetically modified rice be grown commercially and sold in the marketplace?
4.

What conditions imply that we can use classical physics without considering special relativity or quantum mechanics?

    1. matter is moving at speeds of less than roughly 1 percent the speed of light,
    2. objects are large enough to be seen with the naked eye, and
    3. there is the involvement of a strong gravitational field.
    1. matter is moving at speeds greater than roughly 1 percent the speed of light,
    2. objects are large enough to be seen with the naked eye, and
    3. there is the involvement of a strong gravitational field.
    1. matter is moving at speeds of less than roughly 1 percent the speed of light,
    2. objects are too small to be seen with the naked eye, and
    3. there is the involvement of only a weak gravitational field.
    1. matter is moving at speeds of less than roughly 1 percent the speed of light,
    2. objects are large enough to be seen with the naked eye, and
    3. there is the involvement of a weak gravitational field.
5.
How could physics be useful in weather prediction?
  1. Physics helps in predicting how burning fossil fuel releases pollutants.
  2. Physics helps in predicting dynamics and movement of weather phenomena.
  3. Physics helps in predicting the motion of tectonic plates.
  4. Physics helps in predicting how the flowing water affects Earth’s surface.
6.
How do physical therapists use physics while on the job? Explain.
  1. Physical therapists do not require knowledge of physics because their job is mainly therapy and not physics.
  2. Physical therapists do not require knowledge of physics because their job is more social in nature and unscientific.
  3. Physical therapists require knowledge of physics know about muscle contraction and release of energy.
  4. Physical therapists require knowledge of physics to know about chemical reactions inside the body and make decisions accordingly.
7.
What is meant when a physical law is said to be universal?
  1. The law can explain everything in the universe.
  2. The law is applicable to all physical phenomena.
  3. The law applies everywhere in the universe.
  4. The law is the most basic one and all laws are derived from it.
8.
What subfield of physics could describe small objects traveling at high speeds or experiencing a strong gravitational field?
  1. general theory of relativity
  2. classical physics
  3. quantum relativity
  4. special theory of relativity
9.

Why is Einstein’s theory of relativity considered part of modern physics, as opposed to classical physics?

  1. Because it was considered less outstanding than the classics of physics, such as classical mechanics.
  2. Because it was popular physics enjoyed by average people today, instead of physics studied by the elite.
  3. Because the theory deals with very slow-moving objects and weak gravitational fields.
  4. Because it was among the new 19th-century discoveries that changed physics.

1.2 The Scientific Methods

10.
Describe the difference between an observation and a hypothesis.
  1. An observation is seeing what happens; a hypothesis is a testable, educated guess.
  2. An observation is a hypothesis that has been confirmed.
  3. Hypotheses and observations are independent of each other.
  4. Hypotheses are conclusions based on some observations.
11.
Describe how modeling is useful in studying the structure of the atom.
  1. Modeling replaces the real system by something similar but easier to examine.
  2. Modeling replaces the real system by something more interesting to examine.
  3. Modeling replaces the real system by something with more realistic properties.
  4. Modeling includes more details than are present in the real system.
12.
How strongly is a hypothesis supported by evidence compared to a theory?
  1. A theory is supported by little evidence, if any, at first, while a hypothesis is supported by a large amount of available evidence.
  2. A hypothesis is supported by little evidence, if any, at first. A theory is supported by a large amount of available evidence.
  3. A hypothesis is supported by little evidence, if any, at first. A theory does not need any experiments in support.
  4. A theory is supported by little evidence, if any, at first. A hypothesis does not need any experiments in support.

1.3 The Language of Physics: Physical Quantities and Units

13.
Which of the following does not contribute to the uncertainty?
  1. the limitations of the measuring device
  2. the skill of the person making the measurement
  3. the regularities in the object being measured
  4. other factors that affect the outcome (depending on the situation)
14.

How does the independent variable in a graph differ from the dependent variable?

  1. The dependent variable varies linearly with the independent variable.
  2. The dependent variable depends on the scale of the axis chosen while independent variable does not.
  3. The independent variable is directly manipulated or controlled by the person doing the experiment, while dependent variable is the one that changes as a result.
  4. The dependent and independent variables are fixed by a convention and hence they are the same.
15.

What could you conclude about these two lines?

  1. Line A has a slope of 4.7
  2. Line B has a slope of 12.0
  1. Line A is a decreasing line while line B is an increasing line, with line A being much steeper than line B.
  2. Line A is a decreasing line while line B is an increasing line, with line B being much steeper than line A.
  3. Line B is a decreasing line while line A is an increasing line, with line A being much steeper than line B.
  4. Line B is a decreasing line while line A is an increasing line, with line B being much steeper than line A.
16.

Velocity, or speed, is measured using the following formula: v =  d t , v =  d t , where v is velocity, d is the distance travelled, and t is the time the object took to travel the distance. If the velocity-time data are plotted on a graph, which variable will be on which axis? Why?

  1. Time would be on the x-axis and velocity on the y-axis, because time is an independent variable and velocity is a dependent variable.
  2. Velocity would be on the x-axis and time on the y-axis, because time is the independent variable and velocity is the dependent variable.
  3. Time would be on the x-axis and velocity on the y-axis, because time is a dependent variable and velocity is a independent variable.
  4. Velocity would be on x-axis and time on the y-axis, because time is a dependent variable and velocity is a independent variable.
17.
The uncertainty of a triple-beam balance is 0.05 g . What is the percent uncertainty in a measurement of 0.445 kg ?
  1. 0.011 %
  2. 0.11 %
  3. 1.1 %
  4. 11 %
18.
What is the definition of uncertainty?
  1. Uncertainty is the number of assumptions made prior to the measurement of a physical quantity.
  2. Uncertainty is a measure of error in a measurement due to the use of a non-calibrated instrument.
  3. Uncertainty is a measure of deviation of the measured value from the standard value.
  4. Uncertainty is a measure of error in measurement due to external factors like air friction and temperature.
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