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acute kidney injury (AKI)
a decrease in kidney function that has an abrupt onset and is possibly reversible, manifested by decreased urine output and/or increased serum creatinine; previously known as acute renal failure
abnormal fluid present between the peritoneum and the abdominal organs
chronic renal disease (CRD)
a state of progressive decline of kidney function from a glomerular filtration rate of 59 mL/minute/1.73 m2 to a glomerular filtration rate of less than 15 mL/minute/1.73 m2
diuretic braking
a progressive decrease in urinary output after repeated doses of loop diuretics
diuretic resistance
the state in which the maximum dose of a loop diuretic fails to produce the anticipated effect on fluid volume status because successive doses of the drug trigger hypertrophy of the distal tubule, increasing sodium reabsorption
end-stage renal disease (ESRD)
the condition that exists when the glomerular filtration rate falls below 15 mL/minute/1.73 m2
glomerular filtration rate
the rate at which the kidneys filter blood; indicates kidney function
serum potassium level greater than 5.2 mEq/L
serum sodium level greater than 145 mEq/L
body fluid overload, which includes excess fluid volume and edema
serum potassium level less than 3.5 mEq/L
serum sodium level less than 135 mEq/L
decreased extracellular fluid volume associated with sodium and water loss
loop diuretics
drugs that interrupt the reabsorption of sodium and water in the loop of Henle, resulting in increased urinary output
nephrotic syndrome
a group of renal alterations that result in abnormal renal excretion of large amounts of protein
the need to frequently void during the night, interrupting sleep
osmotic diuretics
drugs that draw fluid from the cells by increasing osmotic pressure
temporary or permanent damage to the inner ear due to drug therapy
potassium-sparing diuretics
drugs that interrupt sodium and water reabsorption while retaining potassium and increasing urinary output
sodium–potassium–chloride cotransporter (Na-K-2Cl or NKCC2)
a protein that facilitates transport of sodium, potassium, and chloride into cells
thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics
drugs that increase urinary output by reabsorbing sodium and retaining potassium in the nephron

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