Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo

The organs of the endocrine system, including the pituitary gland, thyroid, adrenal glands, and pancreas are shown in their anatomical location (in the head and torso). The pituitary gland is located below the brain. The thyroid starts in the throat and goes down toward the lungs. The adrenal glands are below the lungs, and the pancreas is located between the adrenal glands.
Figure 28.1 The endocrine system regulates all biological processes related to development of the brain and nervous system, reproduction, growth, and metabolism. (attribution: Copyright Rice University, OpenStax, under CC BY 4.0 license)

Diabetes is a long-term chronic health condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It alters how the body regulates glucose from food and uses it for energy. Diabetes affects people of all races, sexes, and ages. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, n.d.-a), diabetes and diabetes-related health complications can be serious and costly. The eighth leading cause of death in the United States, diabetes costs a total estimated $327 billion in medical costs and lost work and wages (CDC, n.d.-a). Along with dietary modifications, diabetes management includes insulin, non-insulin injectable diabetes drugs, and oral diabetes drugs. This chapter will explore diabetes and the pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments for this disease process.


This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at
Citation information

© May 15, 2024 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.