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antithyroid drugs
inhibit the thyroid hormone so that the body can maintain normal thyroid homeostasis
pyrophosphate analogues that inhibit bone resorption and increase bone density
drugs that mimic the action of calcium in the parathyroid glands or other tissues
a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that lowers blood calcium
Chvostek sign
a twitch of the facial muscles that occurs with gentle tapping of the cheek and in front of the ear
dihydroxyvitamin D3
an active form of vitamin D3 that increases uptake of calcium absorption in the intestine
endocrine glands
glands within the endocrine system that release hormones to control processes that occur within the body
an abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland
Graves’ disease
an immune disorder that results in the overproduction of thyroid hormones
Hashimoto thyroiditis
an autoimmune disorder that involves chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland, resulting in hypothyroidism
a mineral that the body needs to produce thyroid hormones
an iodo-derivative of tyrosine that acts as an intermediary in the biosynthesis of thyroid hormone
myxedema coma
a rare life-threatening condition caused by advanced hypothyroidism that affects the body’s temperature, growth, heart rate, and metabolism
the biochemical process that takes place in the thyroid gland, involving the incorporation of iodine into thyroglobulin for the production of thyroid hormone
a large multinucleated cell responsible for the dissolution and absorption of bone
the death of bone tissue due to a lack of blood supply
a condition that leads to the loss of bone mass, which thereby weakens bone
Paget’s disease
a disease that disrupts the body’s normal bone recycling process of replacing old bone tissue with new bone tissue
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
a peptide hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that regulates serum calcium within the body
a protein present in the thyroid gland from which thyroid hormones are synthesized
thyroid drugs
drugs that replace the thyroid hormone so that the body can maintain its normal function
thyroid gland
a butterfly-shaped gland located in front of the neck below the voice box that is responsible for metabolism and iodine homeostasis within the body
thyroid storm (thyrotoxic crisis)
a rare life-threatening condition that occurs when the thyroid gland releases too much thyroid hormone
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
a hormone that stimulates the production of thyroxine and triiodothyronine; also known as thyrotropin
thyroxine (T4)
a hormone released by the thyroid gland that contains iodine and that increases the rate of chemical reactions within cells
triiodothyronine (T3)
a hormone released by the thyroid gland that plays a role in controlling the body’s metabolic rate, heart and digestive functions, muscle control, brain development and function, and bone maintenance
Trousseau sign
an involuntary contraction of the muscles in the hand and wrist

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