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access discrimination
A catchall term that describes when people are denied employment opportunities because of their identity group or personal characteristics such as gender, race, or age.
access-and-legitimacy perspective
Focuses on the benefits that a diverse workforce can bring to a business that wishes to operate within a diverse set of markets or with culturally diverse clients.
age discrimination
Treating an employee or applicant less favorably due to their age.
Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA)
Forbids discrimination against individuals who are age 40 and above, including offensive or derogatory remarks that create a hostile work environment.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Prohibits discrimination in employment, public services, public accommodations, and telecommunications against people with disabilities.
cognitive diversity
Differences between team members regarding characteristics such as expertise, experiences, and perspectives.
cognitive diversity hypothesis
Multiple perspectives stemming from the cultural differences between group or organizational members result in creative problem-solving and innovation.
covert discrimination (interpersonal)
An interpersonal form of discrimination that manifests in ways that are not visible or readily identifiable.
deep-level diversity
Diversity in characteristics that are nonobservable such as attitudes, values, and beliefs, such as religion.
disability discrimination
Occurs when an employee or applicant is treated unfavorably due to their physical or mental disability.
discrimination-and-fairness perspective
A culturally diverse workforce is a moral duty that must be maintained in order to create a just and fair society.
diversified mentoring relationships
Relationships in which the mentor and the mentee differ in terms of their status within the company and within larger society.
Identity-based differences among and between people that affect their lives as applicants, employees, and customers.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
An organization that enforces laws and issues guidelines for employment-related treatment according to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
Equal Pay Act of 1963
An amendment to the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938.
Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)
Provides new parents, including adoptive and foster parents, with 12 weeks of unpaid leave (or paid leave only if earned by the employee) to care for the new child and requires that nursing mothers have the right to express milk on workplace premises.
glass ceiling
An invisible barrier based on the prejudicial beliefs of organizational decision makers that prevents women from moving beyond certain levels within a company.
A dysfunction in decision-making that is common in homogeneous groups due to group pressures and group members’ desire for conformity and consensus.
Any unwelcome conduct that is based on characteristics such as age, race, national origin, disability, gender, or pregnancy status.
hidden diversity
Differences in traits that are deep-level and may be concealed or revealed at discretion by individuals who possess them.
highly structured interviews
Interviews that are be structured objectively to remove bias from the selection process.
identity group
A collective of individuals who share the same demographic characteristics such as race, sex, or age.
The degree to which employees are accepted and treated fairly by their organization.
integration-and-learning perspective
Posits that the different life experiences, skills, and perspectives that members of diverse cultural identity groups possess can be a valuable resource in the context of work groups.
invisible social identities
Membership in an identity group based on hidden diversity traits such as sexual orientation or a nonobservable disability that may be concealed or revealed.
justification-suppression model
Explains the circumstances in which prejudiced people might act on their prejudices.
justification-suppression model
Explains under what conditions individuals act on their prejudices.
managing diversity
Ways in which organizations seek to ensure that members of diverse groups are valued and treated fairly within organizations.
model minority myth
A stereotype that portrays Asian men and women as obedient and successful and is often used to justify socioeconomic disparities between other racial minority groups.
national origin discrimination
Treating someone unfavorably because of their country of origin, accent, ethnicity, or appearance.
The decision to not disclose one’s invisible social identity.
pregnancy discrimination
Treating an employee or applicant unfairly because of pregnancy status, childbirth, or medical conditions related to pregnancy or childbirth.
Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA)
Prohibits any discrimination as it relates to pregnancy in hiring, firing, compensation, training, job assignment, insurance, or any other employment conditions.
race/color discrimination
Treating employees or applicants unfairly because of their race or because of physical characteristics typically associated with race such as skin color, hair color, hair texture, or certain facial features.
religious discrimination
When employees or applicants are treated unfairly because of their religious beliefs.
resource-based view
Demonstrates how a diverse workforce can create a sustainable competitive advantage for organizations.
The decision to disclose one’s invisible social identity.
reverse discrimination
Describes a situation in which dominant group members perceive that they are experiencing discrimination based on their race or sex.
schema theory
Explains how individuals encode information about others based on their demographic characteristics.
sex-based discrimination
When employees or applicants are treated unfairly because of their sex, including unfair treatment due to gender, transgender status, or sexual orientation.
sexual harassment
Harassment based on a person’s sex; it can (but does not have to) include unwanted sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or physical and verbal acts of a sexual nature.
similarity-attraction paradigm
Individuals’ preferences for interacting with others like themselves can result in diversity having a negative effect on group and organizational outcomes.
social identity theory
Self-concept based on an individual’s physical, social, and mental characteristics.
Overgeneralization of characteristics about groups that are the basis for prejudice and discrimination.
strategic human resources management (SHRM)
System of activities arranged to engage employees in a manner that assists the organization in achieving a sustainable competitive advantage.
surface-level diversity
Diversity in the form of characteristics of individuals that are readily visible, including, but not limited to, age, body size, visible disabilities, race, or sex.
treatment discrimination
A situation in which people are employed but are treated differently while employed, mainly by receiving different and unequal job-related opportunities or rewards.
work visa
A temporary documented status that authorizes individuals from other countries to permanently or temporarily live and work in the United States.
workplace discrimination
Unfair treatment in the job hiring process or at work that is based on the identity group, physical or mental condition, or personal characteristic of an applicant or employee.
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