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angiogenesis
new blood vessel development
antioxidant
artificial or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage
citric acid cycle
final oxidation of protein, fat, and carbohydrate
coenzyme
a non-protein compound that binds with an enzyme to speed up a cellular reaction
Daily Value
one value for each nutrient selected for the labels of dietary supplements and foods
Daily Values
a list of the vitamins and minerals that an individual should consume each day
fat-soluble vitamins
vitamins that are absorbed along with fats in the diet and are stored in the body’s fatty tissue and liver
food enrichment
the practice of adding back nutrients that were lost in food processing
food fortification
the practice of intentionally increasing the content of one or more micronutrients (i.e., vitamins and minerals)
free radicals
a type of unstable molecule that is made during normal cell metabolism
goiter
an increase in thyroid size resulting from either iodine deficiency or hyperthyroidism
Hartnup disease
a condition caused by the body’s inability to absorb amino acids from the diet resulting in the inability to produce vitamins and proteins
megaloblastic anemia
a condition involving a vitamin B12 and/or folate deficiency in which the bone marrow produces very large, structurally abnormal red blood cells
osteoporosis
loss of bone density resulting in porous, fragile bone
oxidation
a chemical reaction in which a “healthy” molecule loses or is robbed of one of its electrons, producing an unhealthy free radical
percent Daily Value
the contribution of a vitamin or mineral in a food portion based on the standard benchmark of a total daily 2,000-calorie diet
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
average daily nutrient intake level necessary to meet the bodily requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals
rickets
softening of the bone due to vitamin D deficiency resulting in bowed legs
toxicity
side effects from taking large doses of supplements or medications
vitamins
nutrients the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy
water-soluble vitamins
vitamins that dissolve in water
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© Mar 7, 2024 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.