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adrenal gland
the small glands sitting on top of the kidneys that release adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol, and aldosterone
aldosterone
a hormone that triggers the reabsorption of sodium by the kidneys
cortisol
a hormone released by the adrenal glands to help maintain blood pressure
costovertebral angle
the area on the back flank at the bottom of the 12th rib forming a 90-degree angle to the spine
cystitis
inflammation of the urinary bladder
erythropoietin
a hormone released by the kidneys that signals the bone marrow to produce red blood cells
glomerulus
a cluster of capillaries around the end of a kidney tubule that filters waste products from the blood
gluconeogenesis
the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates
hematuria
blood in the urine
kidneys
a pair of bean-shaped organs that filter out blood wastes and excrete urine
micturition
the act or urinating
nephron
the functional unit of the kidney that contains the glomerulus and its tubule
parenchyma
the renal cortex and medulla together
pruritis
uncomfortable itching
pyelonephritis
inflammation of the kidney
renal bone dysplasia
a life-threatening condition in which the body breaks down the bones to increase blood calcium levels by releasing the calcium stored in bones
renal capsule
the outermost layer of the kidney composed of fibrous connective tissue
renal cortex
the outer layer of the kidney contained inside the capsule
renal medulla
the inner part of the kidney that contains working filtering units
renal papilla
the apex of a renal pyramid
renal pelvis
the top part of the ureter where the kidney tubules drain
renin
an enzyme secreted by the kidneys that stimulates the production of angiotensin
symphysis pubis
the joint consisting of a fibrocartilaginous disc sandwiched between the surfaces of the pubic bones
urea
the wastes from the breakdown of proteins
ureters
two hollow tube-like ducts that allows passage of urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
urethra
the hollow tube-like duct that allows urine passage from the bladder to the outside of the body
uric acid
the wastes from the breakdown of nucleic acids
urinary bladder
a hollow organ posterior to the symphysis pubis that acts as a storage reservoir for urine before excretion
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