Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo

adrenal gland
the small glands sitting on top of the kidneys that release adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol, and aldosterone
a hormone that triggers the reabsorption of sodium by the kidneys
a hormone released by the adrenal glands to help maintain blood pressure
costovertebral angle
the area on the back flank at the bottom of the 12th rib forming a 90-degree angle to the spine
inflammation of the urinary bladder
a hormone released by the kidneys that signals the bone marrow to produce red blood cells
a cluster of capillaries around the end of a kidney tubule that filters waste products from the blood
the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate carbon substrates
blood in the urine
a pair of bean-shaped organs that filter out blood wastes and excrete urine
the act or urinating
the functional unit of the kidney that contains the glomerulus and its tubule
the renal cortex and medulla together
uncomfortable itching
inflammation of the kidney
renal bone dysplasia
a life-threatening condition in which the body breaks down the bones to increase blood calcium levels by releasing the calcium stored in bones
renal capsule
the outermost layer of the kidney composed of fibrous connective tissue
renal cortex
the outer layer of the kidney contained inside the capsule
renal medulla
the inner part of the kidney that contains working filtering units
renal papilla
the apex of a renal pyramid
renal pelvis
the top part of the ureter where the kidney tubules drain
an enzyme secreted by the kidneys that stimulates the production of angiotensin
symphysis pubis
the joint consisting of a fibrocartilaginous disc sandwiched between the surfaces of the pubic bones
the wastes from the breakdown of proteins
two hollow tube-like ducts that allows passage of urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder
the hollow tube-like duct that allows urine passage from the bladder to the outside of the body
uric acid
the wastes from the breakdown of nucleic acids
urinary bladder
a hollow organ posterior to the symphysis pubis that acts as a storage reservoir for urine before excretion

This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at
Citation information

© Mar 7, 2024 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.