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MicrobiologyFill in the Blank

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When we inject an animal with the same antigen a second time a few weeks after the first, ________ takes place, which means the antibodies produced after the second injection will on average bind the antigen more tightly.


When using mAbs to treat disease in humans, the mAbs must first be ________ by replacing the mouse constant region DNA with human constant region DNA.


If we used normal mouse mAbs to treat human disease, multiple doses would cause the patient to respond with ________ against the mouse antibodies.


A polyclonal response to an infection occurs because most antigens have multiple ________,


When slowly adding antigen to an antiserum, the amount of precipitin would gradually increase until reaching the ________; addition of more antigen after this point would actually decrease the amount of precipitin.


The radial immunodiffusion test quantifies antigen by mixing ________ into a gel and then allowing antigen to diffuse out from a well cut in the gel.


In the major cross-match, we mix ________ with the donor red blood cells and look for agglutination.


Coombs’ reagent is an antiserum with antibodies that bind to human ________.


To detect antibodies against bacteria in the bloodstream using an EIA, we would run a(n) ________, which we would start by attaching antigen from the bacteria to the wells of a microtiter plate.


In flow cytometry, cell subsets are labeled using a fluorescent antibody to a membrane protein. The fluorogen is activated by a(n) ________ as the cells pass by the detectors.


Fluorescence in a flow cytometer is measured by a detector set at an angle to the light source. There is also an in-line detector that can detect cell clumps or ________.

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