Which of the following best describes the innate nonspecific immune system?
- a targeted and highly specific response to a single pathogen or molecule
- a generalized and nonspecific set of defenses against a class or group of pathogens
- a set of barrier mechanisms that adapts to specific pathogens after repeated exposure
- the production of antibody molecules against pathogens
Which of the following constantly sheds dead cells along with any microbes that may be attached to those cells?
- mucous membrane
Which of the following uses a particularly dense suite of tight junctions to prevent microbes from entering the underlying tissue?
- the mucociliary escalator
- the epidermis
- the blood-brain barrier
- the urethra
Which of the following serve as chemical signals between cells and stimulate a wide range of nonspecific defenses?
- antimicrobial peptides
- complement proteins
Bacteriocins and defensins are types of which of the following?
- inflammation-eliciting mediators
- antimicrobial peptides
Which of the following chemical mediators is secreted onto the surface of the skin?
- gastric acid
Identify the complement activation pathway that is triggered by the binding of an acute-phase protein to a pathogen.
Histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, and bradykinin are examples of which of the following?
- chemical mediators primarily found in the digestive system
- chemical mediators that promote inflammation
- antimicrobial peptides found on the skin
- complement proteins that form MACs
White blood cells are also referred to as which of the following?
Hematopoiesis occurs in which of the following?
- bone marrow
- central nervous system
Granulocytes are which type of cell?
PAMPs would be found on the surface of which of the following?
- skin cell
- blood vessel wall
________ on phagocytes bind to PAMPs on bacteria, which triggers the uptake and destruction of the bacterial pathogens?
Which of the following best characterizes the mode of pathogen recognition for opsonin-dependent phagocytosis?
- Opsonins produced by a pathogen attract phagocytes through chemotaxis.
- A PAMP on the pathogen’s surface is recognized by a phagocyte’s toll-like receptors.
- A pathogen is first coated with a molecule such as a complement protein, which allows it to be recognized by phagocytes.
- A pathogen is coated with a molecule such as a complement protein that immediately lyses the cell.
Which refers to swelling as a result of inflammation?
Which type of inflammation occurs at the site of an injury or infection?