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Multiple Choice

MicrobiologyMultiple Choice

Multiple Choice


A scientist discovers that a soil bacterium he has been studying produces an antimicrobial that kills gram-negative bacteria. She isolates and purifies the antimicrobial compound, then chemically converts a chemical side chain to a hydroxyl group. When she tests the antimicrobial properties of this new version, she finds that this antimicrobial drug can now also kill gram-positive bacteria. The new antimicrobial drug with broad-spectrum activity is considered to be which of the following?

  1. resistant
  2. semisynthetic
  3. synthetic
  4. natural

Which of the following antimicrobial drugs is synthetic?

  1. sulfanilamide
  2. penicillin
  3. actinomycin
  4. neomycin

Which of the following combinations would most likely contribute to the development of a superinfection?

  1. long-term use of narrow-spectrum antimicrobials
  2. long-term use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials
  3. short-term use of narrow-spectrum antimicrobials
  4. short-term use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials

Which of the following routes of administration would be appropriate and convenient for home administration of an antimicrobial to treat a systemic infection?

  1. oral
  2. intravenous
  3. topical
  4. parenteral

Which clinical situation would be appropriate for treatment with a narrow-spectrum antimicrobial drug?

  1. treatment of a polymicrobic mixed infection in the intestine
  2. prophylaxis against infection after a surgical procedure
  3. treatment of strep throat caused by culture identified Streptococcus pyogenes
  4. empiric therapy of pneumonia while waiting for culture results

Which of the following terms refers to the ability of an antimicrobial drug to harm the target microbe without harming the host?

  1. mode of action
  2. therapeutic level
  3. spectrum of activity
  4. selective toxicity

Which of the following is not a type of β-lactam antimicrobial?

  1. penicillins
  2. glycopeptides
  3. cephalosporins
  4. monobactams

Which of the following does not bind to the 50S ribosomal subunit?

  1. tetracyclines
  2. lincosamides
  3. macrolides
  4. chloramphenicol

Which of the following antimicrobials inhibits the activity of DNA gyrase?

  1. polymyxin B
  2. clindamycin
  3. nalidixic acid
  4. rifampin

Which of the following is not an appropriate target for antifungal drugs?

  1. ergosterol
  2. chitin
  3. cholesterol
  4. β(1→3) glucan

Which of the following drug classes specifically inhibits neuronal transmission in helminths?

  1. quinolines
  2. avermectins
  3. amantadines
  4. imidazoles

Which of the following is a nucleoside analog commonly used as a reverse transcriptase inhibitor in the treatment of HIV?

  1. acyclovir
  2. ribavirin
  3. adenine-arabinoside
  4. azidothymidine

Which of the following is an antimalarial drug that is thought to increase ROS levels in target cells?

  1. artemisinin
  2. amphotericin b
  3. praziquantel
  4. pleconaril

Which of the following resistance mechanisms describes the function of β-lactamase?

  1. efflux pump
  2. target mimicry
  3. drug inactivation
  4. target overproduction

Which of the following resistance mechanisms is commonly effective against a wide range of antimicrobials in multiple classes?

  1. efflux pump
  2. target mimicry
  3. target modification
  4. target overproduction

Which of the following resistance mechanisms is the most nonspecific to a particular class of antimicrobials?

  1. drug modification
  2. target mimicry
  3. target modification
  4. efflux pump

Which of the following types of drug-resistant bacteria do not typically persist in individuals as a member of their intestinal microbiota?

  1. MRSA
  2. VRE
  3. CRE
  4. ESBL-producing bacteria

In the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test, the _______ of the zone of inhibition is measured and used for interpretation.

  1. diameter
  2. microbial population
  3. circumference
  4. depth

Which of the following techniques cannot be used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of an antimicrobial drug against a particular microbe?

  1. Etest
  2. microbroth dilution test
  3. Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion test
  4. macrobroth dilution test

The utility of an antibiogram is that it shows antimicrobial susceptibility trends

  1. over a large geographic area.
  2. for an individual patient.
  3. in research laboratory strains.
  4. in a localized population.

Which of the following has yielded compounds with the most antimicrobial activity?

  1. water
  2. air
  3. volcanoes
  4. soil
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