Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo

Ajmal, M., Khan, M., & Van Fossen K. (2022, October 6). Breast fibroadenoma. StatPearls [Internet].

American Cancer Society. (2021a). Breast cancer hormone receptor status.

American Cancer Society. (2021b). Breast cancer stages.

American Cancer Society. (2021c). Breast reconstruction options.

American Cancer Society. (2021d). Genetic counseling and testing for breast cancer risk.

American Cancer Society. (2021e). Immunotherapy for breast cancer.

American Cancer Society. (2021f). Radiation for breast cancer.

American Cancer Society. (2022a). American Cancer Society recommendations for the early detection of breast cancer.

American Cancer Society. (2022b). Intraductal papillomas of the breast.

American Cancer Society. (2022c). Pregnancy after breast cancer.

American Cancer Society. (2023a). Hormone therapy for breast cancer.

American Cancer Society. (2023b). Key statistics for breast cancer.

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2017, July; reaffirmed 2021). Practice Bulletin No. 179: Breast cancer risk assessment and screening in average-risk women.

Bajaj, A. (2020). Acutely inflamed mamilla—mastitis and abscess. Journal of Medical Research and Surgery, 1(3), 1–7.

Bischof, E., Schwab, F. D., Margarint, E. L. G., Montavon, C., Zünti, I., Schollback, A., Schötzau, A., Hirschmann, A., Landin, J., Meier, C., Christian, K., & Vetter, M. Adherence to bone health guidelines in patience with hormone receptor-positive early breast cancer: Status and clinical impact in a Swiss cohort experience. Bone Reports, 16, 102260. (2022a, June 29). Benign breast conditions. (2022b, July 27). Fibroadenoma. (2023). Breast cancer facts and statistics.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023). Cancer statistics at a glance.

Chen, Y. Y., Fang, W. H., Wang, C. C., Kao, T. W., Chang, Y. W., Yang, H. F., Wu, C. J., Sun, Y. S., & Chen, W. L. (2018). Examining the associations among fibrocystic breast change, total lean mass, and percent body fat. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 9180.

Costa Morais Oliveira, V., Cubas-Vega, N., López Del-Tejo, P., Baía-da-Silva, D. C., Araújo Tavares, M., Picinin Safe, I., Cordeiro-Santos, M., Lacerda, M. V. G., & Val, F. (2021). Non-lactational infectious mastitis in the Americas: A systematic review. Frontiers in Medicine, 8, 672513.

de Boniface, J., Szulkin, R., & Johansson, A. L. V. (2021). Survival after breast conservation vs mastectomy adjusted for comorbidity and socioeconomic status: A Swedish national 6-year follow-up of 48 986 women. JAMA Surgery, 156(7), 628–637.

Demarco, C. (2023, January 19). Side effects of radiation therapy for breast cancer.

El-Essawy, M., Haidary, A. A., & Khan, A. L. (2020, May 6). Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in breast fibroadenoma. Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, 51(73).

Gopalani, S. V., Janitz, A. E., Martinez, S. A., Gutman, P., Khan, S., & Campbell, J. E. (2020). Trends in cancer incidence among American Indians and Alaska Natives and non-Hispanic Whites in the United States, 1999–2015. Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.), 31(2), 205–213.

Hasan, S., Chew, K. S., Balang, R. V., & Wong, S. S. L. (2023). Beyond the scars: A qualitative study on the experiences of mastectomy among young women with breast cancer in a country with crisis. BMC Women’s Health, 23(1), 596.

Li, J., Humphreys, K., Ho, P. J., Eriksson, M., Darai-Ramqvist, E., Lindström, L. S., Hall, P., & Czene, K. (2018). Family history, reproductive, and lifestyle risk factors for fibroadenoma and breast cancer. JNCI Cancer Spectrum, 2(3), pky051.

Mburu, W., Kulasingam, S., Hodges, J. S., & Virnig, B.A. (2022). Breast-conserving surgery versus mastectomy for older women with triple-negative breast cancer: Population-based study. Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, 11(13).

McDowell, S. (2022, October 3). Breast cancer death rates are highest for Black women—again.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. (n.d.). Stages of breast cancer.

Mouslim, M. C., Johnson, R. M., & Dean, L. T. (2020). Healthcare system distrust and the breast cancer continuum of care. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 180(1), 33–44.

National Breast Cancer Foundation. (n.d.). Stages.

National Cancer Institute. (2023a). All cancer sites combined: Recent trends in SEER age-adjusted incidence rates, 2000–2020.

National Cancer Institute. (2023b). SEER incidence data, 1975–2020.

National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering. (n.d.). Mammography.

North American Menopause Society. (2023). Other body changes affecting sexuality.

Nursing drug handbook. (2023). Wolters Kluwer.

Oncology Nursing Society. (2018). Toolkit for safe handling of hazardous drugs for nurses in oncology.

Sarkar, D. K., Banerjee, R., Gupta, S., Singhal, A. K., & Halder, A. (2023). Management of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis: A prospective study. Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England, 105(3), 218–224.

Stachs, A., Stubert, J., Reimer, T., & Hartmann, S. (2019, August 9). Benign breast disease in women. Deutsches Arzteblatt International, 116(33–34), 565–574.

Stringer-Reasor, E. M., Elkhanany, A., Khoury, K., Simon, M. A., & Newman, L. A. (2021). Disparities in breast cancer associated with African American identity. American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book, 41, E29–246.

Susan G. Komen. (2022a). Breast cancer screening for women at average risk.

Susan G. Komen. (2022b). Breast cancer screening for women at higher risk.

Susan G. Komen. (2023a). Chemotherapy drugs for early breast cancer.

Susan G. Komen. (2023b). Genetic testing to learn about breast cancer risk.

Susan G. Komen. (2023c). Race and ethnicity.

Susan G. Komen. (2023d). Tumor characteristics: Hormone receptor status.

U. S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2016). Breast cancer: Screening.

Yadav, P., Sharma, A., Singh, L., & Gupta, R. (2020). Management of fibrocystic breast disease: A comprehensive review. Journal of Advanced Scientific Research, 11(4), 30–37.


This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at
Citation information

© Jun 25, 2024 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.