Skip to ContentGo to accessibility pageKeyboard shortcuts menu
OpenStax Logo

benign breast changes
umbrella term that encompasses several different noncancerous conditions that occur in the breast tissue, including trauma, breast pain, infection, skin changes, nipple discharge, and tumors
biologic response modifier
medication that uses the patient’s own immune system to recognize and get rid of cancer cells
BRCA1
gene associated with increased risk of breast cancer when mutations occur in it
BRCA2
gene associated with increased risk of breast cancer when mutations occur in it
calcification
calcium deposit found in the breast tissue that is usually benign but can sometimes indicate an early breast cancer
core needle biopsy (CNA)
procedure that removes a larger amount of tissue for analysis because it uses a larger hollow needle
fibroadenoma
painless, noncancerous tumor found in the breast tissue
fibrocystic breast changes
changes in either or both breasts that can cause lumpiness, or nodularity, or pain in the affected breast(s)
fibrosis
thickening of the glandular tissue
fine needle aspiration (FNA)
placement of a small needle (21 g to 25 g) into the lesion to obtain a tissue or fluid sample
HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)
protein important in cell growth that, when found in high levels in breast cancer cells, causes the cancer to grow more quickly and spread more aggressively
intraductal papilloma
benign tumor that grows inside the milk ducts of the breasts
lumpectomy
surgical procedure that removes the tumor, a small ring of healthy tissue around the tumor (to ensure that all cancer cells are removed) and, possibly, some axillary lymph nodes
mammary ductal ectasia
(also: periductal mastitis) chronic inflammation of the breast tissue that also causes dilated mammary ducts with thickened walls; plasma cell infiltration; leakage of fluid into the surrounding tissue, leading to inflammation and fat necrosis; and sometimes the formation of an abscess
mammography
the x-ray visualization of the breast tissue, obtained by compressing the breast between two plates
mastalgia
breast pain
mastectomy
the removal of the entire breast, including the nipple and areola
multiple papillomas
papillomas found in the smaller milk ducts farther from the nipple
nonlactation mastitis
an inflammation of the breast tissue in a non–breast-feeding person, which may or may not occur with an infection
periductal mastitis (PDM)
(also: mammary ductal ectasia) chronic inflammation of the breast tissue that also causes dilated mammary ducts with thickened walls; plasma cell infiltration; leakage of fluid into the surrounding tissue, leading to inflammation and fat necrosis; and sometimes the formation of an abscess
solitary papilloma
individual, single tumor that grows close to the nipple in the larger milk ducts
triple negative cancer
cancer that is negative for HER2 protein and estrogen/progesterone receptors
triple positive cancer
cancer that is positive for HER2 protein and estrogen/progesterone receptors
Citation/Attribution

This book may not be used in the training of large language models or otherwise be ingested into large language models or generative AI offerings without OpenStax's permission.

Want to cite, share, or modify this book? This book uses the Creative Commons Attribution License and you must attribute OpenStax.

Attribution information
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, then you must include on every physical page the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/maternal-newborn-nursing/pages/1-introduction
  • If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, then you must include on every digital page view the following attribution:
    Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/maternal-newborn-nursing/pages/1-introduction
Citation information

© Jun 12, 2024 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.